Indicating cure and stress in composite containers using optical fibers

Pekka Suopajärvi, Veijo Lyöri, Seppo Nissilä, Harri Kopola, Reijo Johansson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Long optical fibers embedded inside a composite material enable on-line monitoring of the manufacturing process and can also be used to assess damage by monitoring strain and cracks in the structure.
We report on measurements of the microbending loss in long single-mode and multimode telecommunication fibers that were successfully installed inside the walls of composite containers during the normal manufacturing process.
The work was largely empirical, and theoretical aspects were not investigated thoroughly. The measurements were carried out using the optical through power technique and a commercial optical time-domain reflectometer that gives not only the attenuation but also spatial information.
We found that the coating material and its thickness have an effect on loading sensitivity and on the applicability of the method for cure monitoring.
Although we discovered that repeatability issues are a problem, the measurement data indicate that the end-of-curing process of the composite can be determined by optical sensing fibers and damaging external loading of the structure can be detected.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2587-2591
JournalOptical Engineering
Volume34
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1995
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

containers
Containers
Optical fibers
optical fibers
composite materials
Monitoring
Composite materials
manufacturing
fibers
reflectometers
Fibers
Reflectometers
curing
Telecommunication
Curing
telecommunication
cracks
attenuation
damage
Cracks

Cite this

Suopajärvi, Pekka ; Lyöri, Veijo ; Nissilä, Seppo ; Kopola, Harri ; Johansson, Reijo. / Indicating cure and stress in composite containers using optical fibers. In: Optical Engineering. 1995 ; Vol. 34, No. 9. pp. 2587-2591.
@article{c5f6f2c221614eb0b5909fd82d637191,
title = "Indicating cure and stress in composite containers using optical fibers",
abstract = "Long optical fibers embedded inside a composite material enable on-line monitoring of the manufacturing process and can also be used to assess damage by monitoring strain and cracks in the structure. We report on measurements of the microbending loss in long single-mode and multimode telecommunication fibers that were successfully installed inside the walls of composite containers during the normal manufacturing process. The work was largely empirical, and theoretical aspects were not investigated thoroughly. The measurements were carried out using the optical through power technique and a commercial optical time-domain reflectometer that gives not only the attenuation but also spatial information. We found that the coating material and its thickness have an effect on loading sensitivity and on the applicability of the method for cure monitoring. Although we discovered that repeatability issues are a problem, the measurement data indicate that the end-of-curing process of the composite can be determined by optical sensing fibers and damaging external loading of the structure can be detected.",
author = "Pekka Suopaj{\"a}rvi and Veijo Ly{\"o}ri and Seppo Nissil{\"a} and Harri Kopola and Reijo Johansson",
year = "1995",
doi = "10.1117/12.208131",
language = "English",
volume = "34",
pages = "2587--2591",
journal = "Optical Engineering",
issn = "0091-3286",
publisher = "International Society for Optics and Photonics SPIE",
number = "9",

}

Suopajärvi, P, Lyöri, V, Nissilä, S, Kopola, H & Johansson, R 1995, 'Indicating cure and stress in composite containers using optical fibers', Optical Engineering, vol. 34, no. 9, pp. 2587-2591. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.208131

Indicating cure and stress in composite containers using optical fibers. / Suopajärvi, Pekka; Lyöri, Veijo; Nissilä, Seppo; Kopola, Harri; Johansson, Reijo.

In: Optical Engineering, Vol. 34, No. 9, 1995, p. 2587-2591.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Indicating cure and stress in composite containers using optical fibers

AU - Suopajärvi, Pekka

AU - Lyöri, Veijo

AU - Nissilä, Seppo

AU - Kopola, Harri

AU - Johansson, Reijo

PY - 1995

Y1 - 1995

N2 - Long optical fibers embedded inside a composite material enable on-line monitoring of the manufacturing process and can also be used to assess damage by monitoring strain and cracks in the structure. We report on measurements of the microbending loss in long single-mode and multimode telecommunication fibers that were successfully installed inside the walls of composite containers during the normal manufacturing process. The work was largely empirical, and theoretical aspects were not investigated thoroughly. The measurements were carried out using the optical through power technique and a commercial optical time-domain reflectometer that gives not only the attenuation but also spatial information. We found that the coating material and its thickness have an effect on loading sensitivity and on the applicability of the method for cure monitoring. Although we discovered that repeatability issues are a problem, the measurement data indicate that the end-of-curing process of the composite can be determined by optical sensing fibers and damaging external loading of the structure can be detected.

AB - Long optical fibers embedded inside a composite material enable on-line monitoring of the manufacturing process and can also be used to assess damage by monitoring strain and cracks in the structure. We report on measurements of the microbending loss in long single-mode and multimode telecommunication fibers that were successfully installed inside the walls of composite containers during the normal manufacturing process. The work was largely empirical, and theoretical aspects were not investigated thoroughly. The measurements were carried out using the optical through power technique and a commercial optical time-domain reflectometer that gives not only the attenuation but also spatial information. We found that the coating material and its thickness have an effect on loading sensitivity and on the applicability of the method for cure monitoring. Although we discovered that repeatability issues are a problem, the measurement data indicate that the end-of-curing process of the composite can be determined by optical sensing fibers and damaging external loading of the structure can be detected.

U2 - 10.1117/12.208131

DO - 10.1117/12.208131

M3 - Article

VL - 34

SP - 2587

EP - 2591

JO - Optical Engineering

JF - Optical Engineering

SN - 0091-3286

IS - 9

ER -