Individual Differences in the Perception of Color Solutions

Ulla Hoppu, Sari Puputti, Heikki Aisala, Oskar Laaksonen, Mari Sandell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


The color of food is important for flavor perception and food selection. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the visual color perception of liquid samples among Finnish adult consumers by their background variables. Participants (n = 205) ranked six different colored solutions just by looking according to four attributes: from most to least pleasant, healthy, sweet and sour. The color sample rated most frequently as the most pleasant was red (37%), the most healthy white (57%), the most sweet red and orange (34% both) and the most sour yellow (54%). Ratings of certain colors differed between gender, age, body mass index (BMI) and education groups. Females regarded the red color as the sweetest more often than males (p = 0.013) while overweight subjects rated the orange as the sweetest more often than normal weight subjects (p = 0.029). Personal characteristics may be associated with some differences in color associations.

Original languageEnglish
Article number154
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2018
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Color
  • Gender
  • Perception
  • Taste
  • Visual


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