Industrial By-products

Jaana Sovari, Margareta Wahlström

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter or book articleProfessional

8 Citations (Scopus)


Industrial processes generate various mineral residues with a potential for reuse, recycling or manufacturing of new materials or products, such as metallurgical slag, ash from energy production, waste from mining and enrichment of ore and fiber sludge from the forest industry, among others. Some of these by-products can be returned directly to the manufacturing process as raw material, whereas several applications can be found particularly in the building industry and agriculture. The technical and environmental properties of a by-product ultimately determine its suitability for a specific application. A by-product's properties can also be altered by processing, refinement or storing, however. Mechanical treatment, such as crushing, grinding, granulation, sieving, drying and stabilization, are common treatment methods. To what extent a specific by-product is utilized finally depends on the overall benefits attained by recycling. Here, the availability and price of virgin materials, logistic issues and refinement or processing costs play an important role.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationHandbook of Recycling
Subtitle of host publicationState-of-the-art for Practioners, Analysts, and Scientists
ISBN (Print)978-0-12-396459-5
Publication statusPublished - 2014
MoE publication typeD2 Article in professional manuals or guides or professional information systems or text book material


  • aggregate
  • by-products
  • construction
  • environmental acceptability
  • fertilizer
  • recovery
  • recycling
  • reuse
  • technical compliance


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