Industrial symbiosis contributing to more sustainable energy use: An example from the forest industry in Kymenlaakso, Finland

Laura Sokka (Corresponding Author), S. Pakarinen, M. Melanen

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    80 Citations (Scopus)


    Industrial symbiosis (IS) studies the physical flows of materials and energy in local industrial systems using a systems approach. In this study the total fuel and energy use, and greenhouse gas emissions are calculated for an ‘industrial park’ operating in the same manner as an IS. Moreover the relevance of industrial symbiosis, particularly one centred on pulp and paper manufacturing, in moving towards more sustainable fuel consumption and reduced greenhouse gas emissions is discussed. The system is compared to hypothetical stand-alone production. Moreover, possibilities to reduce the energy use and total greenhouse gas emissions of the park are identified.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)285-293
    Number of pages9
    JournalJournal of Cleaner Production
    Issue number4
    Publication statusPublished - 2011
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed



    • Industrial symbiosis
    • Eco-industrial Park
    • Energy
    • Fuels
    • Greenhouse gas emissions

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