Industry 4.0 in Finland: Towards Twin Transition

Iqra Khan, Osmo Kauppila, Jukka Majava, Marko Jurmu, Jan Olaf Blech, Elina Annanperä, Marko Jurvansuu, Susanna Pirttikangas

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter or book articleScientificpeer-review


In the global rankings of digitalisation and Industry 4.0 maturity, Finland constantly places among the frontrunners. This study examines the path Finland has taken to reach the forefront, the drivers, and the current challenges and future opportunities related to Industry 4.0 and digitalisation. This analysis is based on extensive experience in Industry 4.0-related ecosystem projects, policy documentation and previous research. As Finland focuses on the export of high-value-added products and services, the early adoption of new technologies is vital and thus a key driver. Moreover, the national culture of innovation, R&D and triple helix collaboration have driven Industry 4.0 implementation alongside a highly skilled workforce. However, multiple barriers hindering full Industry 4.0 utilisation still exist, including SMEs’ hesitation to digitalise due to insufficient support mechanisms, an aging population and the difficulty in finding single-source solutions. Respective future opportunities were found in areas such as smart sustainable manufacturing and ecosystems, enhanced SME involvement, lifelong learning and platform economy. Currently, Finland is moving from digitalisation towards a twin transition and sustainable ecosystem-to-ecosystem collaboration. Practical early-stage examples of implementing this policy include the AI 4.0 and the Sustainable Industry X supercluster initiatives.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationIndustry 4.0 in SMEs Across the Globe
Subtitle of host publicationDrivers, Barriers, and Opportunities
EditorsJulian M. Müller, Nikolai Kazantsev
PublisherCRC Press
Number of pages15
ISBN (Electronic)978-1-003-16588-0
ISBN (Print)978-0-367-76190-5, 978-0-367-76191-2
Publication statusPublished - 2022
MoE publication typeA3 Part of a book or another research book


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