Influence of Fuel to Primary Exhaust Emissions and Secondary Aerosol Formation Potential from a Ship Engine

Hilkka Timonen, Niina Kuittinen, Päivi Aakko-Saksa, Minna Aurela, Pauli Pekka Simonen, Panu Karjalainen, Mia Isotalo, Matthew Bloss, Timo Murtonen, Hannu Vesala, Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen, Päivi Koponen, W. H. Brune, Topi Rönkkö, Sanna Saarikoski

    Research output: Contribution to conferenceConference AbstractScientificpeer-review


    Particulate emissions from international shipping aren’t directly regulated, however the regulation for gaseous emissions (e.g. SOx, NOx) has been implemented in recent years. Also, limitations for shipping black carbon (BC) emissions are planned by IMO (International Maritime Organization). The aim of this study was to conduct a comprehensive characterization of gaseous and particulate emissions of a ship engine. Measurements were conducted at the VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland engine laboratory using a 1.6 MW Wärtsilä Vasa 4R32 LN medium-speed engine. Test fuels comprised fuels with 0.1%, 0.5% and 2.5% sulphur content and a biofuel blend. Two engine loads, 75% and 25% were used. Chemical composition of exhaust emissions was measured using a soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS). SPAMS enables the real-time measurements of particulate matter (PM) mass and size-resolved chemical composition of submicron non-refractory particulate matter, refractory BC and some metals and elements. In addition, in-depth chemical composition was analysed from filters. The secondary aerosol formation potential from exhaust emissions was studied using a potential aerosol mass (PAM) chamber. In addition, gaseous emissions, black carbon concentrations, size distributions of PM as well as physical properties of PM (e.g. volatility, hygroscopicity) were analysed using several state-of-the art online instruments.

    The main constituents of primary PM were BC, organic compounds and sulphates. Both fuel and engine load were observed to have a clear influence to both concentration and composition of the primary PM. Secondary aerosol was dominated by organic compounds and sulphur. The fuel was observed to have a large influence to secondary aerosol formation potential. Highest secondary aerosol formation potentials were observed for high sulphur (0.5-2.5% S) fuels.
    Original languageEnglish
    Number of pages1
    Publication statusPublished - 18 Oct 2017
    MoE publication typeNot Eligible
    Event36th Annual Conference of American Association for Aerosol Research - Raleigh Convention Center, Raleigh, United States
    Duration: 16 Oct 201720 Oct 2017 (Abstract book)


    Conference36th Annual Conference of American Association for Aerosol Research
    Country/TerritoryUnited States
    Internet address


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