Influence of metakaoline on the chloride penetration performance of concrete

Miguel Ferreira, João Castro-Gomes, Pedro Costa, Raphaele Malheiro

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference abstract in proceedingsScientific


Extensive research and practical experience have shown that partial replacement of cement by metakaolin improves concrete durability as a result of the refinement of the pore structure. While literature confirms much research on the performance of concrete with metakaolin, it is scarce concerning the performance with regards to chloride penetration, and the effect on the service life of reinforced concrete structures. In this study, several concrete mixes were cast with varying cement type and content and were evaluated for their chloride penetration performance. Reference mixes where made with CEM I 42,5R and CEM IV/A 42,5 type cements. Two cement contents levels where defined: 330 kg/m3 and 440 kg/m3 based on mix designs currently used in the ready-mix industry for C20/25 and C30/37 concretes. Cement was replaced with metakaolin with levels varying from 10 - 20%. All concretes where tested for fresh properties, compressive strength, electrical resistivity and chloride diffusion characteristics (migration and ponding), and mercury intrusion porosimetry. The results demonstrate the improved resistance to chloride penetration of concretes with metakaolin additions. A beneficial effect on strength and durability properties of metakaolin was also observed. In addition, service life design calculations of reinforced concrete structures in marine environment based on the performance indicators obtained show a significant increase in the time to fulfil the serviceability limit state of corrosion initiation
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationICDC 2012, International Congress on Durability of Concrete
PublisherNorsk Betongforening
ISBN (Print)978-8-2820-8031-6
Publication statusPublished - 2012
MoE publication typeNot Eligible
EventInternational Congress on Durability of Concrete, ICDC 2012 - Trondheim, Norway
Duration: 18 Jun 201221 Jun 2012


ConferenceInternational Congress on Durability of Concrete, ICDC 2012
Abbreviated titleICDC 2012


  • durability
  • metakaolin
  • chloride
  • electrical resistivity
  • service life
  • addition


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