Influence of TiO2 compact layer precursor on the performance of perovskite solar cells

Paola Vivo (Corresponding Author), Anniina Ojanperä, Jan-Henrik Smått, Simon Sandén, Syed Ghufran Hashmi, Kimmo Kaunisto, Petri Ihalainen, Muhammad Talha Masood, Ronald Österbacka, Peter Lund, Helge Lemmetyinen

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    35 Citations (Scopus)


    The optimization of the hole-blocking layer in perovskite solar cells (PSC), typically based on TiO2, is crucial, as it strongly affects the device performance. In this work, we thoroughly characterize the thickness, roughness, and crystal structure of a set of TiO2 compact layers produced by spin coating of different precursor sols and correlate the choice of the TiO2 precursor to the photovoltaic performance of the PSC. By replacing the commonly used titanium isopropoxide (TTIP) blocking layer precursor with titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4), a clear enhancement in the PSC performance was observed, particularly in the hysteresis behavior and stability. The results from the morphological/structural analysis and transient photoluminescence studies clarify the different behavior of the compact layers in PSCs.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)287-293
    JournalOrganic Electronics
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2017
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


    • compact layer
    • hysteresis
    • perovskite solar cells
    • stability
    • TiCl4
    • TiO2
    • TiCl
    • TiO


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