Many integrins mediate cell attachment to the extracellular matrix by recognizing short tripeptide sequences such as arginine–glycine–aspartic acid and leucine–aspartate–valine. Using phage display, we have now found that the leukocyte-specific β2 integrins bind sequences containing a leucine–leucine–glycine (LLG) tripeptide motif. An LLG motif is present on intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, the major β2 integrin ligand, but also on several matrix proteins, including von Willebrand factor. We developed a novel β2 integrin antagonist peptide CPCFLLGCC (called LLG-C4), the structure of which was determined by nuclear magnetic resonance. The LLG-C4 peptide inhibited leukocyte adhesion to ICAM-1, and, interestingly, also to von Willebrand factor. When immobilized on plastic, the LLG-C4 sequence supported the β2 integrin–mediated leukocyte adhesion, but not β1 or β3 integrin–mediated cell adhesion. These results suggest that LLG sequences exposed on ICAM-1 and on von Willebrand factor at sites of vascular injury play a role in the binding of leukocytes, and LLG-C4 and peptidomimetics derived from it could provide a therapeutic approach to inflammatory reactions.
Koivunen, E., Ranta, T-M., Annila, A., Taube, S., Uppala, A., Jokinen, M., van Willigen, G., Ihanus, E., & Gahmberg, C. (2001). Inhibition of β2Integrin–Mediated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion by Leucine–Leucine–Glycine Motif–Containing Peptides. Journal of Cell Biology, 153(5), 905-915. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.153.5.905