Innovative Hydrothermal Carbonization (HTC) Process for a Nordic Pulp and Paper Mill

Elina Mäki, Heidi Saastamoinen, Kristian Melin, Doris Matschegg, Bas Davidis, Jurjen Spekreijse, Vasiliki Tselepi, Dimitrios-Sotirios Kourkoumpas, Peter Axegård

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientific

1 Citation (Scopus)


The common way of handling sludge from pulp and paper mill’s waste water treatment plant (WWTP) is combusting it at the site. Combustion is rather a way to dispose the sludge than take advantage of its energy content. This paper assesses the potential to convert the wet low-value feedstock, specifically WWTP’s secondary sludge, to a more valuable bioenergy product called hydrochar through hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) using C-Green’s innovative OxyPower HTC technology. We assess the integration to a Nordic sulphate pulp mill with different assumptions and compare the results to current situation of combusting sludge in the recovery boiler. The approach contains assessment of effects of integration to pulp mill’s mass and energy balance (e.g. power consumption), study of the markets, economic assessment and assessment of effects on greenhouse gas emissions.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication29th European Biomass Conference: Setting the course for a biobased economy
Subtitle of host publicationProceedings of the International conference held online
EditorsN. Scarlat, A. Grassi
PublisherETA-Florence Renewable Energies
Number of pages7
ISBN (Print)978-88-89407-21-9
Publication statusPublished - 29 Apr 2021
MoE publication typeB3 Non-refereed article in conference proceedings
Event29th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, EUBCE 2021 - Online, Virtual, Online
Duration: 26 Apr 202129 Apr 2021

Publication series

SeriesEuropean Biomass Conference and Exhibition Proceedings


Conference29th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, EUBCE 2021
CityVirtual, Online


  • bioenergy
  • hydrothermal carbonization
  • wastewater treatment
  • sludge
  • pulp and paper industry
  • retrofitting


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