Integrated liquid chromatography-heated nebulizer microchip for mass spectrometry

Markus Haapala, Ville Saarela, Jaroslav Pól, Kai Kolari, Tapio Kotiaho, Sami Franssila, Risto Kostiainen (Corresponding Author)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A new integrated microchip for liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) is presented. The chip is made from bonded silicon and glass wafers with structures for a packed LC column channel, a micropillar frit, a channel for optional optical detection, and a heated vaporizer section etched in silicon and platinum heater elements on the glass cover. LC eluent is vaporized and mixed with nebulizer gas in the vaporizer section and the vapor is sprayed out from the chip. Nonpolar and polar analytes can be efficiently ionized in the gas phase by atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) as demonstrated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). This is not achievable with present LC–MS chips, since they are based on electrospray ionization, which is not able to ionize nonpolar compounds efficiently. The preliminary quantitative performance of the new chip was evaluated in terms of limit of detection (down to 5 ng mL−1), linearity (r > 0.999), and repeatability of signal response (RSD = 2.6–4.0%) and retention time (RSD = 0.3–0.5%) using APPI for ionization and PAHs as standard compounds. Determination of fluorescent compounds is demonstrated by using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) for detection in the optical detection channel before the vaporizer section.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)163-169
JournalAnalytica Chimica Acta
Volume662
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2010
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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Photoionization
Nebulizers and Vaporizers
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Liquid chromatography
Silicon
Liquid Chromatography
Spectrometry
Atmospheric pressure
Mass spectrometry
liquid chromatography
Mass Spectrometry
mass spectrometry
Gases
Glass
Electrospray ionization
Atmospheric Pressure
Androgen Receptors
Liquids
Platinum
atmospheric pressure

Keywords

  • Atmospheric pressure ionization
  • Liquid chromatography
  • Mass spectrometry
  • Microchip
  • Miniaturization

Cite this

Haapala, M., Saarela, V., Pól, J., Kolari, K., Kotiaho, T., Franssila, S., & Kostiainen, R. (2010). Integrated liquid chromatography-heated nebulizer microchip for mass spectrometry. Analytica Chimica Acta, 662(2), 163-169. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2010.01.005
Haapala, Markus ; Saarela, Ville ; Pól, Jaroslav ; Kolari, Kai ; Kotiaho, Tapio ; Franssila, Sami ; Kostiainen, Risto. / Integrated liquid chromatography-heated nebulizer microchip for mass spectrometry. In: Analytica Chimica Acta. 2010 ; Vol. 662, No. 2. pp. 163-169.
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abstract = "A new integrated microchip for liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) is presented. The chip is made from bonded silicon and glass wafers with structures for a packed LC column channel, a micropillar frit, a channel for optional optical detection, and a heated vaporizer section etched in silicon and platinum heater elements on the glass cover. LC eluent is vaporized and mixed with nebulizer gas in the vaporizer section and the vapor is sprayed out from the chip. Nonpolar and polar analytes can be efficiently ionized in the gas phase by atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) as demonstrated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). This is not achievable with present LC–MS chips, since they are based on electrospray ionization, which is not able to ionize nonpolar compounds efficiently. The preliminary quantitative performance of the new chip was evaluated in terms of limit of detection (down to 5 ng mL−1), linearity (r > 0.999), and repeatability of signal response (RSD = 2.6–4.0{\%}) and retention time (RSD = 0.3–0.5{\%}) using APPI for ionization and PAHs as standard compounds. Determination of fluorescent compounds is demonstrated by using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) for detection in the optical detection channel before the vaporizer section.",
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Haapala, M, Saarela, V, Pól, J, Kolari, K, Kotiaho, T, Franssila, S & Kostiainen, R 2010, 'Integrated liquid chromatography-heated nebulizer microchip for mass spectrometry', Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 662, no. 2, pp. 163-169. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2010.01.005

Integrated liquid chromatography-heated nebulizer microchip for mass spectrometry. / Haapala, Markus; Saarela, Ville; Pól, Jaroslav; Kolari, Kai; Kotiaho, Tapio; Franssila, Sami; Kostiainen, Risto (Corresponding Author).

In: Analytica Chimica Acta, Vol. 662, No. 2, 2010, p. 163-169.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Integrated liquid chromatography-heated nebulizer microchip for mass spectrometry

AU - Haapala, Markus

AU - Saarela, Ville

AU - Pól, Jaroslav

AU - Kolari, Kai

AU - Kotiaho, Tapio

AU - Franssila, Sami

AU - Kostiainen, Risto

PY - 2010

Y1 - 2010

N2 - A new integrated microchip for liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) is presented. The chip is made from bonded silicon and glass wafers with structures for a packed LC column channel, a micropillar frit, a channel for optional optical detection, and a heated vaporizer section etched in silicon and platinum heater elements on the glass cover. LC eluent is vaporized and mixed with nebulizer gas in the vaporizer section and the vapor is sprayed out from the chip. Nonpolar and polar analytes can be efficiently ionized in the gas phase by atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) as demonstrated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). This is not achievable with present LC–MS chips, since they are based on electrospray ionization, which is not able to ionize nonpolar compounds efficiently. The preliminary quantitative performance of the new chip was evaluated in terms of limit of detection (down to 5 ng mL−1), linearity (r > 0.999), and repeatability of signal response (RSD = 2.6–4.0%) and retention time (RSD = 0.3–0.5%) using APPI for ionization and PAHs as standard compounds. Determination of fluorescent compounds is demonstrated by using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) for detection in the optical detection channel before the vaporizer section.

AB - A new integrated microchip for liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) is presented. The chip is made from bonded silicon and glass wafers with structures for a packed LC column channel, a micropillar frit, a channel for optional optical detection, and a heated vaporizer section etched in silicon and platinum heater elements on the glass cover. LC eluent is vaporized and mixed with nebulizer gas in the vaporizer section and the vapor is sprayed out from the chip. Nonpolar and polar analytes can be efficiently ionized in the gas phase by atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) as demonstrated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). This is not achievable with present LC–MS chips, since they are based on electrospray ionization, which is not able to ionize nonpolar compounds efficiently. The preliminary quantitative performance of the new chip was evaluated in terms of limit of detection (down to 5 ng mL−1), linearity (r > 0.999), and repeatability of signal response (RSD = 2.6–4.0%) and retention time (RSD = 0.3–0.5%) using APPI for ionization and PAHs as standard compounds. Determination of fluorescent compounds is demonstrated by using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) for detection in the optical detection channel before the vaporizer section.

KW - Atmospheric pressure ionization

KW - Liquid chromatography

KW - Mass spectrometry

KW - Microchip

KW - Miniaturization

U2 - 10.1016/j.aca.2010.01.005

DO - 10.1016/j.aca.2010.01.005

M3 - Article

VL - 662

SP - 163

EP - 169

JO - Analytica Chimica Acta

JF - Analytica Chimica Acta

SN - 0003-2670

IS - 2

ER -