Integration of electrokinetics and chemical oxidation for the remediation of creosote-contaminated clay

Pirjo Isosaari, Reetta Piskonen, P. Ojala, S. Voipio, K. Eilola, Eila Lehmus, Merja Itävaara

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    71 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Remediation of clayey soils that are contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is a challenging task that may require integration of several technologies. The benefits of integrating in situ electrokinetic remediation with chemical oxidation were evaluated in laboratory-scale experiments lasting for 8 weeks. A voltage gradient of 48 V/m of direct current and 4.7 V/m of alternating current and periodic additions of chemical oxidants were applied to creosote-contaminated soil. Electrokinetically enhanced oxidation with sodium persulphate resulted in better PAH removal (35%) than either electrokinetics (24%) or persulphate oxidation (12%) alone. However, the improvement was shown only within 1/3 (5 cm) of the soil compartment. Electrokinetics did not improve the performance of Fenton oxidation. Both chemical oxidants created more positive oxidation–reduction potential than electrokinetic treatment alone. On the other hand, persulphate treatment impaired the electroosmotic flow rate. Elemental analyses showed reduction in the natural Al and Ca concentrations, increase in Zn, Cu, P and S concentrations and transfer of several metal cations towards the cathode. In conclusion, the results encourage to further optimisation of an integrated remediation technology that combines the beneficial effects of electrokinetics, persulphate oxidation and Fenton oxidation.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)538-548
    JournalJournal of Hazardous Materials
    Volume144
    Issue number1-2
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2007
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Fingerprint

    Creosote
    creosote
    Remediation
    Clay
    remediation
    Soil
    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
    Oxidants
    oxidation
    clay
    Oxidation
    Electroosmosis
    Technology
    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
    Soils
    oxidant
    Cations
    PAH
    Electrodes
    Metals

    Keywords

    • Electrokinetic remediation
    • Fenton's reagent
    • Persulphate oxidation
    • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon
    • Wood impregnation

    Cite this

    Isosaari, P., Piskonen, R., Ojala, P., Voipio, S., Eilola, K., Lehmus, E., & Itävaara, M. (2007). Integration of electrokinetics and chemical oxidation for the remediation of creosote-contaminated clay. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 144(1-2), 538-548. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2006.10.068
    Isosaari, Pirjo ; Piskonen, Reetta ; Ojala, P. ; Voipio, S. ; Eilola, K. ; Lehmus, Eila ; Itävaara, Merja. / Integration of electrokinetics and chemical oxidation for the remediation of creosote-contaminated clay. In: Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2007 ; Vol. 144, No. 1-2. pp. 538-548.
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    abstract = "Remediation of clayey soils that are contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is a challenging task that may require integration of several technologies. The benefits of integrating in situ electrokinetic remediation with chemical oxidation were evaluated in laboratory-scale experiments lasting for 8 weeks. A voltage gradient of 48 V/m of direct current and 4.7 V/m of alternating current and periodic additions of chemical oxidants were applied to creosote-contaminated soil. Electrokinetically enhanced oxidation with sodium persulphate resulted in better PAH removal (35{\%}) than either electrokinetics (24{\%}) or persulphate oxidation (12{\%}) alone. However, the improvement was shown only within 1/3 (5 cm) of the soil compartment. Electrokinetics did not improve the performance of Fenton oxidation. Both chemical oxidants created more positive oxidation–reduction potential than electrokinetic treatment alone. On the other hand, persulphate treatment impaired the electroosmotic flow rate. Elemental analyses showed reduction in the natural Al and Ca concentrations, increase in Zn, Cu, P and S concentrations and transfer of several metal cations towards the cathode. In conclusion, the results encourage to further optimisation of an integrated remediation technology that combines the beneficial effects of electrokinetics, persulphate oxidation and Fenton oxidation.",
    keywords = "Electrokinetic remediation, Fenton's reagent, Persulphate oxidation, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, Wood impregnation",
    author = "Pirjo Isosaari and Reetta Piskonen and P. Ojala and S. Voipio and K. Eilola and Eila Lehmus and Merja It{\"a}vaara",
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    Isosaari, P, Piskonen, R, Ojala, P, Voipio, S, Eilola, K, Lehmus, E & Itävaara, M 2007, 'Integration of electrokinetics and chemical oxidation for the remediation of creosote-contaminated clay', Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 144, no. 1-2, pp. 538-548. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2006.10.068

    Integration of electrokinetics and chemical oxidation for the remediation of creosote-contaminated clay. / Isosaari, Pirjo; Piskonen, Reetta; Ojala, P.; Voipio, S.; Eilola, K.; Lehmus, Eila; Itävaara, Merja.

    In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 144, No. 1-2, 2007, p. 538-548.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Integration of electrokinetics and chemical oxidation for the remediation of creosote-contaminated clay

    AU - Isosaari, Pirjo

    AU - Piskonen, Reetta

    AU - Ojala, P.

    AU - Voipio, S.

    AU - Eilola, K.

    AU - Lehmus, Eila

    AU - Itävaara, Merja

    N1 - Project code: RTEU405 R5SU01224

    PY - 2007

    Y1 - 2007

    N2 - Remediation of clayey soils that are contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is a challenging task that may require integration of several technologies. The benefits of integrating in situ electrokinetic remediation with chemical oxidation were evaluated in laboratory-scale experiments lasting for 8 weeks. A voltage gradient of 48 V/m of direct current and 4.7 V/m of alternating current and periodic additions of chemical oxidants were applied to creosote-contaminated soil. Electrokinetically enhanced oxidation with sodium persulphate resulted in better PAH removal (35%) than either electrokinetics (24%) or persulphate oxidation (12%) alone. However, the improvement was shown only within 1/3 (5 cm) of the soil compartment. Electrokinetics did not improve the performance of Fenton oxidation. Both chemical oxidants created more positive oxidation–reduction potential than electrokinetic treatment alone. On the other hand, persulphate treatment impaired the electroosmotic flow rate. Elemental analyses showed reduction in the natural Al and Ca concentrations, increase in Zn, Cu, P and S concentrations and transfer of several metal cations towards the cathode. In conclusion, the results encourage to further optimisation of an integrated remediation technology that combines the beneficial effects of electrokinetics, persulphate oxidation and Fenton oxidation.

    AB - Remediation of clayey soils that are contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is a challenging task that may require integration of several technologies. The benefits of integrating in situ electrokinetic remediation with chemical oxidation were evaluated in laboratory-scale experiments lasting for 8 weeks. A voltage gradient of 48 V/m of direct current and 4.7 V/m of alternating current and periodic additions of chemical oxidants were applied to creosote-contaminated soil. Electrokinetically enhanced oxidation with sodium persulphate resulted in better PAH removal (35%) than either electrokinetics (24%) or persulphate oxidation (12%) alone. However, the improvement was shown only within 1/3 (5 cm) of the soil compartment. Electrokinetics did not improve the performance of Fenton oxidation. Both chemical oxidants created more positive oxidation–reduction potential than electrokinetic treatment alone. On the other hand, persulphate treatment impaired the electroosmotic flow rate. Elemental analyses showed reduction in the natural Al and Ca concentrations, increase in Zn, Cu, P and S concentrations and transfer of several metal cations towards the cathode. In conclusion, the results encourage to further optimisation of an integrated remediation technology that combines the beneficial effects of electrokinetics, persulphate oxidation and Fenton oxidation.

    KW - Electrokinetic remediation

    KW - Fenton's reagent

    KW - Persulphate oxidation

    KW - Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon

    KW - Wood impregnation

    U2 - 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2006.10.068

    DO - 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2006.10.068

    M3 - Article

    VL - 144

    SP - 538

    EP - 548

    JO - Journal of Hazardous Materials

    JF - Journal of Hazardous Materials

    SN - 0304-3894

    IS - 1-2

    ER -