Integrins mediate cell–matrix and cell–cell interactions and integrate extracellular cues to the cytoskeleton and cellular signalling pathways. Integrin function on the cell surface is regulated by their activity switching such that intracellular proteins interacting with the integrin cytoplasmic domains increase or decrease integrin–ligand binding affinity. It is widely accepted that integrin activation by specific proteins is essential for cell adhesion and integrin linkage to the actin cytoskeleton. However, there is also increasing evidence that integrin-inactivating proteins are crucial for appropriate integrin function in vitro and in vivo and that the regulation of integrin–ligand interactions is a fine-tuned balancing act between inactivation and activation.
Bouward, D., Pouwels, J., De Franceschi, N., & Ivaska, J. (2013). Integrin inactivators: Balancing cellular functions in vitro and in vivo. Nature Reviews: Molecular Cell Biology, 14(7), 430-442. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrm3599