This paper introduces a holistic view to intelligent transport systems (ITS) by providing four different perspectives: the technological, economic, system performance and market views. These perspectives are essential for a thorough understanding of ITS systems, which extend beyond traditional transportation engineering. ITS require management tools related to systems engineering (i.e. architectures); unique features are related to transport economics, and they differ from traditional transport engineering solutions. ITS technologies can improve transport system performance in numerous ways; furthermore, ITS is an important business segment for many technology companies and an industry by its own right. Different types of expertise and management are required for this meta-system, which is comparable to the entire transport system in terms of organisational objectives.
- System architecture