Intermodulation read-out principle for passive wireless sensors

Ville Viikari, Heikki Seppä, Kim Dong-Wook

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    30 Citations (Scopus)


    This paper presents a general intermodulation read-out principle for passive wireless sensors. A sensor utilizes a mixing element, such as a varactor, and it can be equipped with a capacitive, inductive, or resistive sensor element. When the sensor is illuminated with signals with two frequencies, it replies the sensor data at an intermodulation frequency. An analytical expression for the intermodulation response of the sensor is derived and verified by simulations. The concept is demonstrated at 1.2 GHz.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1025-1031
    JournalIEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
    Issue number4
    Publication statusPublished - 2011
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


    • Mixers
    • RF identification (RFID)
    • wireless sensors


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