Investigation of environmental reliability of optical polymer waveguides embedded on printed circuit boards

Marika P. Immonen (Corresponding Author), Mikko Karppinen, Jorma K. Kivilahti

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    15 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    In this paper, the effects of environmental stresses on the properties of polymeric optical waveguides were investigated. Optical multimode waveguides were embedded on printed circuit boards by employing commercial polymers. Three optical-PCB constructions varying in board structure and in optical build-up materials were compared. The guide systems were subjected to four different tests: damp heat-high humidity, isothermal annealing, thermal shock and environmental flowing multigas test. Isothermal annealing reduced the refractive index to greatest extent. The optical-PCB structure with optical surface build-up layer was observed to be more vulnerable under temperature shock when compared with the O-PCB with optical inner layer. The buffer layer beneath the optical build-up was found to improve the stability of the optical waveguides significantly. The results indicated of a wavelength dependence to the aging factor with a failure mechanism. The factors affecting the performance and reliability of polymer-based optical waveguides on PCBs were discussed.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)363-371
    JournalMicroelectronics Reliability
    Volume47
    Issue number2-3
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2007
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Fingerprint

    polychlorinated biphenyls
    Polychlorinated Biphenyls
    printed circuits
    circuit boards
    Polychlorinated biphenyls
    Printed circuit boards
    Polymers
    Waveguides
    Optical waveguides
    optical waveguides
    waveguides
    Isothermal annealing
    polymers
    high temperature tests
    annealing
    thermal shock
    Thermal shock
    Buffer layers
    humidity
    Refractive index

    Keywords

    • polymers
    • optical waveguides
    • interconnections
    • circuits

    Cite this

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    title = "Investigation of environmental reliability of optical polymer waveguides embedded on printed circuit boards",
    abstract = "In this paper, the effects of environmental stresses on the properties of polymeric optical waveguides were investigated. Optical multimode waveguides were embedded on printed circuit boards by employing commercial polymers. Three optical-PCB constructions varying in board structure and in optical build-up materials were compared. The guide systems were subjected to four different tests: damp heat-high humidity, isothermal annealing, thermal shock and environmental flowing multigas test. Isothermal annealing reduced the refractive index to greatest extent. The optical-PCB structure with optical surface build-up layer was observed to be more vulnerable under temperature shock when compared with the O-PCB with optical inner layer. The buffer layer beneath the optical build-up was found to improve the stability of the optical waveguides significantly. The results indicated of a wavelength dependence to the aging factor with a failure mechanism. The factors affecting the performance and reliability of polymer-based optical waveguides on PCBs were discussed.",
    keywords = "polymers, optical waveguides, interconnections, circuits",
    author = "Immonen, {Marika P.} and Mikko Karppinen and Kivilahti, {Jorma K.}",
    year = "2007",
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    language = "English",
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    Investigation of environmental reliability of optical polymer waveguides embedded on printed circuit boards. / Immonen, Marika P. (Corresponding Author); Karppinen, Mikko; Kivilahti, Jorma K.

    In: Microelectronics Reliability, Vol. 47, No. 2-3, 2007, p. 363-371.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Investigation of environmental reliability of optical polymer waveguides embedded on printed circuit boards

    AU - Immonen, Marika P.

    AU - Karppinen, Mikko

    AU - Kivilahti, Jorma K.

    PY - 2007

    Y1 - 2007

    N2 - In this paper, the effects of environmental stresses on the properties of polymeric optical waveguides were investigated. Optical multimode waveguides were embedded on printed circuit boards by employing commercial polymers. Three optical-PCB constructions varying in board structure and in optical build-up materials were compared. The guide systems were subjected to four different tests: damp heat-high humidity, isothermal annealing, thermal shock and environmental flowing multigas test. Isothermal annealing reduced the refractive index to greatest extent. The optical-PCB structure with optical surface build-up layer was observed to be more vulnerable under temperature shock when compared with the O-PCB with optical inner layer. The buffer layer beneath the optical build-up was found to improve the stability of the optical waveguides significantly. The results indicated of a wavelength dependence to the aging factor with a failure mechanism. The factors affecting the performance and reliability of polymer-based optical waveguides on PCBs were discussed.

    AB - In this paper, the effects of environmental stresses on the properties of polymeric optical waveguides were investigated. Optical multimode waveguides were embedded on printed circuit boards by employing commercial polymers. Three optical-PCB constructions varying in board structure and in optical build-up materials were compared. The guide systems were subjected to four different tests: damp heat-high humidity, isothermal annealing, thermal shock and environmental flowing multigas test. Isothermal annealing reduced the refractive index to greatest extent. The optical-PCB structure with optical surface build-up layer was observed to be more vulnerable under temperature shock when compared with the O-PCB with optical inner layer. The buffer layer beneath the optical build-up was found to improve the stability of the optical waveguides significantly. The results indicated of a wavelength dependence to the aging factor with a failure mechanism. The factors affecting the performance and reliability of polymer-based optical waveguides on PCBs were discussed.

    KW - polymers

    KW - optical waveguides

    KW - interconnections

    KW - circuits

    U2 - 10.1016/j.microrel.2006.02.020

    DO - 10.1016/j.microrel.2006.02.020

    M3 - Article

    VL - 47

    SP - 363

    EP - 371

    JO - Microelectronics Reliability

    JF - Microelectronics Reliability

    SN - 0026-2714

    IS - 2-3

    ER -