Investigation of environmental reliability of optical polymer waveguides embedded on printed circuit boards

Marika P. Immonen (Corresponding Author), Mikko Karppinen, Jorma K. Kivilahti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In this paper, the effects of environmental stresses on the properties of polymeric optical waveguides were investigated. Optical multimode waveguides were embedded on printed circuit boards by employing commercial polymers. Three optical-PCB constructions varying in board structure and in optical build-up materials were compared. The guide systems were subjected to four different tests: damp heat-high humidity, isothermal annealing, thermal shock and environmental flowing multigas test. Isothermal annealing reduced the refractive index to greatest extent. The optical-PCB structure with optical surface build-up layer was observed to be more vulnerable under temperature shock when compared with the O-PCB with optical inner layer. The buffer layer beneath the optical build-up was found to improve the stability of the optical waveguides significantly. The results indicated of a wavelength dependence to the aging factor with a failure mechanism. The factors affecting the performance and reliability of polymer-based optical waveguides on PCBs were discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)363-371
JournalMicroelectronics Reliability
Volume47
Issue number2-3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2007
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

polychlorinated biphenyls
Polychlorinated Biphenyls
printed circuits
circuit boards
Polychlorinated biphenyls
Printed circuit boards
Polymers
Waveguides
Optical waveguides
optical waveguides
waveguides
Isothermal annealing
polymers
high temperature tests
annealing
thermal shock
Thermal shock
Buffer layers
humidity
Refractive index

Keywords

  • polymers
  • optical waveguides
  • interconnections
  • circuits

Cite this

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title = "Investigation of environmental reliability of optical polymer waveguides embedded on printed circuit boards",
abstract = "In this paper, the effects of environmental stresses on the properties of polymeric optical waveguides were investigated. Optical multimode waveguides were embedded on printed circuit boards by employing commercial polymers. Three optical-PCB constructions varying in board structure and in optical build-up materials were compared. The guide systems were subjected to four different tests: damp heat-high humidity, isothermal annealing, thermal shock and environmental flowing multigas test. Isothermal annealing reduced the refractive index to greatest extent. The optical-PCB structure with optical surface build-up layer was observed to be more vulnerable under temperature shock when compared with the O-PCB with optical inner layer. The buffer layer beneath the optical build-up was found to improve the stability of the optical waveguides significantly. The results indicated of a wavelength dependence to the aging factor with a failure mechanism. The factors affecting the performance and reliability of polymer-based optical waveguides on PCBs were discussed.",
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Investigation of environmental reliability of optical polymer waveguides embedded on printed circuit boards. / Immonen, Marika P. (Corresponding Author); Karppinen, Mikko; Kivilahti, Jorma K.

In: Microelectronics Reliability, Vol. 47, No. 2-3, 2007, p. 363-371.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Investigation of environmental reliability of optical polymer waveguides embedded on printed circuit boards

AU - Immonen, Marika P.

AU - Karppinen, Mikko

AU - Kivilahti, Jorma K.

PY - 2007

Y1 - 2007

N2 - In this paper, the effects of environmental stresses on the properties of polymeric optical waveguides were investigated. Optical multimode waveguides were embedded on printed circuit boards by employing commercial polymers. Three optical-PCB constructions varying in board structure and in optical build-up materials were compared. The guide systems were subjected to four different tests: damp heat-high humidity, isothermal annealing, thermal shock and environmental flowing multigas test. Isothermal annealing reduced the refractive index to greatest extent. The optical-PCB structure with optical surface build-up layer was observed to be more vulnerable under temperature shock when compared with the O-PCB with optical inner layer. The buffer layer beneath the optical build-up was found to improve the stability of the optical waveguides significantly. The results indicated of a wavelength dependence to the aging factor with a failure mechanism. The factors affecting the performance and reliability of polymer-based optical waveguides on PCBs were discussed.

AB - In this paper, the effects of environmental stresses on the properties of polymeric optical waveguides were investigated. Optical multimode waveguides were embedded on printed circuit boards by employing commercial polymers. Three optical-PCB constructions varying in board structure and in optical build-up materials were compared. The guide systems were subjected to four different tests: damp heat-high humidity, isothermal annealing, thermal shock and environmental flowing multigas test. Isothermal annealing reduced the refractive index to greatest extent. The optical-PCB structure with optical surface build-up layer was observed to be more vulnerable under temperature shock when compared with the O-PCB with optical inner layer. The buffer layer beneath the optical build-up was found to improve the stability of the optical waveguides significantly. The results indicated of a wavelength dependence to the aging factor with a failure mechanism. The factors affecting the performance and reliability of polymer-based optical waveguides on PCBs were discussed.

KW - polymers

KW - optical waveguides

KW - interconnections

KW - circuits

U2 - 10.1016/j.microrel.2006.02.020

DO - 10.1016/j.microrel.2006.02.020

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VL - 47

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JO - Microelectronics Reliability

JF - Microelectronics Reliability

SN - 0026-2714

IS - 2-3

ER -