Investigation of environmental reliability of optical polymer waveguides embedded on printed circuit boards

Marika P. Immonen, Mikko Karppinen, Jorma K. Kivilahti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose - To investigate the influences of environmental stresses on board-embedded polymeric waveguides. Design/methodology/approach - Optical multimode waveguides were embedded on printed circuit boards using commercial polymers. The optical - PCBs varying in board structure and in optical build-up materials were exposed to heat, moisture and ionic-contaminants in accelerated reliability tests. The influence of stress factors on the structural integrity and functional parameters, namely the refractive index and optical transmissivity, was investigated at the key communication wavelengths. Findings - Isothermal annealing reduced the refractive index to the greatest extent. The optical-PCB structure with an optical surface build-up layer was observed to be more vulnerable under temperature shock when compared with the optical-PCB with optical inner layer. The buffer layer beneath the optical build-up was found to improve the stability of the optical waveguides significantly. The results indicated of wavelength dependence to the aging factor with a failure mechanism. The factors affecting the performance and reliability of polymer-based optical waveguides on PCBs were discussed. Research limitations/implications - More experimental data and investigations of failure mechanisms are required to ultimately obtain sufficient reliability statistics for accurate life-time prediction models. Originality/value - Optical interconnects are seen as a promising solution to overcome performance limitations encountered with high-frequency electrical interconnections. As an emerging technology, only a limited amount of reliability data on optical/electrical packages is available. The paper investigates the influences of environmental stresses on board-embedded polymeric waveguides.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)9-19
JournalCircuit World
Volume33
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2007
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Polychlorinated biphenyls
Printed circuit boards
Waveguides
Optical waveguides
Polymers
Refractive index
Isothermal annealing
Wavelength
Optical interconnects
Structural integrity
Buffer layers
Moisture
Aging of materials
Statistics
Impurities
Communication
Temperature

Keywords

  • Polymers
  • Printed circuits
  • Product reliability

Cite this

@article{c9e34bd59c4a403db0a4bd4661435e6f,
title = "Investigation of environmental reliability of optical polymer waveguides embedded on printed circuit boards",
abstract = "Purpose - To investigate the influences of environmental stresses on board-embedded polymeric waveguides. Design/methodology/approach - Optical multimode waveguides were embedded on printed circuit boards using commercial polymers. The optical - PCBs varying in board structure and in optical build-up materials were exposed to heat, moisture and ionic-contaminants in accelerated reliability tests. The influence of stress factors on the structural integrity and functional parameters, namely the refractive index and optical transmissivity, was investigated at the key communication wavelengths. Findings - Isothermal annealing reduced the refractive index to the greatest extent. The optical-PCB structure with an optical surface build-up layer was observed to be more vulnerable under temperature shock when compared with the optical-PCB with optical inner layer. The buffer layer beneath the optical build-up was found to improve the stability of the optical waveguides significantly. The results indicated of wavelength dependence to the aging factor with a failure mechanism. The factors affecting the performance and reliability of polymer-based optical waveguides on PCBs were discussed. Research limitations/implications - More experimental data and investigations of failure mechanisms are required to ultimately obtain sufficient reliability statistics for accurate life-time prediction models. Originality/value - Optical interconnects are seen as a promising solution to overcome performance limitations encountered with high-frequency electrical interconnections. As an emerging technology, only a limited amount of reliability data on optical/electrical packages is available. The paper investigates the influences of environmental stresses on board-embedded polymeric waveguides.",
keywords = "Polymers, Printed circuits, Product reliability",
author = "Immonen, {Marika P.} and Mikko Karppinen and Kivilahti, {Jorma K.}",
year = "2007",
doi = "10.1108/03056120710836891",
language = "English",
volume = "33",
pages = "9--19",
journal = "Circuit World",
issn = "0305-6120",
publisher = "Emerald Publishing Limited",
number = "4",

}

Investigation of environmental reliability of optical polymer waveguides embedded on printed circuit boards. / Immonen, Marika P.; Karppinen, Mikko; Kivilahti, Jorma K.

In: Circuit World, Vol. 33, No. 4, 2007, p. 9-19.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Investigation of environmental reliability of optical polymer waveguides embedded on printed circuit boards

AU - Immonen, Marika P.

AU - Karppinen, Mikko

AU - Kivilahti, Jorma K.

PY - 2007

Y1 - 2007

N2 - Purpose - To investigate the influences of environmental stresses on board-embedded polymeric waveguides. Design/methodology/approach - Optical multimode waveguides were embedded on printed circuit boards using commercial polymers. The optical - PCBs varying in board structure and in optical build-up materials were exposed to heat, moisture and ionic-contaminants in accelerated reliability tests. The influence of stress factors on the structural integrity and functional parameters, namely the refractive index and optical transmissivity, was investigated at the key communication wavelengths. Findings - Isothermal annealing reduced the refractive index to the greatest extent. The optical-PCB structure with an optical surface build-up layer was observed to be more vulnerable under temperature shock when compared with the optical-PCB with optical inner layer. The buffer layer beneath the optical build-up was found to improve the stability of the optical waveguides significantly. The results indicated of wavelength dependence to the aging factor with a failure mechanism. The factors affecting the performance and reliability of polymer-based optical waveguides on PCBs were discussed. Research limitations/implications - More experimental data and investigations of failure mechanisms are required to ultimately obtain sufficient reliability statistics for accurate life-time prediction models. Originality/value - Optical interconnects are seen as a promising solution to overcome performance limitations encountered with high-frequency electrical interconnections. As an emerging technology, only a limited amount of reliability data on optical/electrical packages is available. The paper investigates the influences of environmental stresses on board-embedded polymeric waveguides.

AB - Purpose - To investigate the influences of environmental stresses on board-embedded polymeric waveguides. Design/methodology/approach - Optical multimode waveguides were embedded on printed circuit boards using commercial polymers. The optical - PCBs varying in board structure and in optical build-up materials were exposed to heat, moisture and ionic-contaminants in accelerated reliability tests. The influence of stress factors on the structural integrity and functional parameters, namely the refractive index and optical transmissivity, was investigated at the key communication wavelengths. Findings - Isothermal annealing reduced the refractive index to the greatest extent. The optical-PCB structure with an optical surface build-up layer was observed to be more vulnerable under temperature shock when compared with the optical-PCB with optical inner layer. The buffer layer beneath the optical build-up was found to improve the stability of the optical waveguides significantly. The results indicated of wavelength dependence to the aging factor with a failure mechanism. The factors affecting the performance and reliability of polymer-based optical waveguides on PCBs were discussed. Research limitations/implications - More experimental data and investigations of failure mechanisms are required to ultimately obtain sufficient reliability statistics for accurate life-time prediction models. Originality/value - Optical interconnects are seen as a promising solution to overcome performance limitations encountered with high-frequency electrical interconnections. As an emerging technology, only a limited amount of reliability data on optical/electrical packages is available. The paper investigates the influences of environmental stresses on board-embedded polymeric waveguides.

KW - Polymers

KW - Printed circuits

KW - Product reliability

U2 - 10.1108/03056120710836891

DO - 10.1108/03056120710836891

M3 - Article

VL - 33

SP - 9

EP - 19

JO - Circuit World

JF - Circuit World

SN - 0305-6120

IS - 4

ER -