Investigation of environmental reliability of optical polymer waveguides embedded on printed circuit boards

Marika P. Immonen, Mikko Karppinen, Jorma K. Kivilahti

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    5 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Purpose - To investigate the influences of environmental stresses on board-embedded polymeric waveguides. Design/methodology/approach - Optical multimode waveguides were embedded on printed circuit boards using commercial polymers. The optical - PCBs varying in board structure and in optical build-up materials were exposed to heat, moisture and ionic-contaminants in accelerated reliability tests. The influence of stress factors on the structural integrity and functional parameters, namely the refractive index and optical transmissivity, was investigated at the key communication wavelengths. Findings - Isothermal annealing reduced the refractive index to the greatest extent. The optical-PCB structure with an optical surface build-up layer was observed to be more vulnerable under temperature shock when compared with the optical-PCB with optical inner layer. The buffer layer beneath the optical build-up was found to improve the stability of the optical waveguides significantly. The results indicated of wavelength dependence to the aging factor with a failure mechanism. The factors affecting the performance and reliability of polymer-based optical waveguides on PCBs were discussed. Research limitations/implications - More experimental data and investigations of failure mechanisms are required to ultimately obtain sufficient reliability statistics for accurate life-time prediction models. Originality/value - Optical interconnects are seen as a promising solution to overcome performance limitations encountered with high-frequency electrical interconnections. As an emerging technology, only a limited amount of reliability data on optical/electrical packages is available. The paper investigates the influences of environmental stresses on board-embedded polymeric waveguides.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)9-19
    JournalCircuit World
    Volume33
    Issue number4
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2007
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Fingerprint

    Polychlorinated biphenyls
    Printed circuit boards
    Waveguides
    Optical waveguides
    Polymers
    Refractive index
    Isothermal annealing
    Wavelength
    Optical interconnects
    Structural integrity
    Buffer layers
    Moisture
    Aging of materials
    Statistics
    Impurities
    Communication
    Temperature

    Keywords

    • Polymers
    • Printed circuits
    • Product reliability

    Cite this

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    title = "Investigation of environmental reliability of optical polymer waveguides embedded on printed circuit boards",
    abstract = "Purpose - To investigate the influences of environmental stresses on board-embedded polymeric waveguides. Design/methodology/approach - Optical multimode waveguides were embedded on printed circuit boards using commercial polymers. The optical - PCBs varying in board structure and in optical build-up materials were exposed to heat, moisture and ionic-contaminants in accelerated reliability tests. The influence of stress factors on the structural integrity and functional parameters, namely the refractive index and optical transmissivity, was investigated at the key communication wavelengths. Findings - Isothermal annealing reduced the refractive index to the greatest extent. The optical-PCB structure with an optical surface build-up layer was observed to be more vulnerable under temperature shock when compared with the optical-PCB with optical inner layer. The buffer layer beneath the optical build-up was found to improve the stability of the optical waveguides significantly. The results indicated of wavelength dependence to the aging factor with a failure mechanism. The factors affecting the performance and reliability of polymer-based optical waveguides on PCBs were discussed. Research limitations/implications - More experimental data and investigations of failure mechanisms are required to ultimately obtain sufficient reliability statistics for accurate life-time prediction models. Originality/value - Optical interconnects are seen as a promising solution to overcome performance limitations encountered with high-frequency electrical interconnections. As an emerging technology, only a limited amount of reliability data on optical/electrical packages is available. The paper investigates the influences of environmental stresses on board-embedded polymeric waveguides.",
    keywords = "Polymers, Printed circuits, Product reliability",
    author = "Immonen, {Marika P.} and Mikko Karppinen and Kivilahti, {Jorma K.}",
    year = "2007",
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    Investigation of environmental reliability of optical polymer waveguides embedded on printed circuit boards. / Immonen, Marika P.; Karppinen, Mikko; Kivilahti, Jorma K.

    In: Circuit World, Vol. 33, No. 4, 2007, p. 9-19.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Investigation of environmental reliability of optical polymer waveguides embedded on printed circuit boards

    AU - Immonen, Marika P.

    AU - Karppinen, Mikko

    AU - Kivilahti, Jorma K.

    PY - 2007

    Y1 - 2007

    N2 - Purpose - To investigate the influences of environmental stresses on board-embedded polymeric waveguides. Design/methodology/approach - Optical multimode waveguides were embedded on printed circuit boards using commercial polymers. The optical - PCBs varying in board structure and in optical build-up materials were exposed to heat, moisture and ionic-contaminants in accelerated reliability tests. The influence of stress factors on the structural integrity and functional parameters, namely the refractive index and optical transmissivity, was investigated at the key communication wavelengths. Findings - Isothermal annealing reduced the refractive index to the greatest extent. The optical-PCB structure with an optical surface build-up layer was observed to be more vulnerable under temperature shock when compared with the optical-PCB with optical inner layer. The buffer layer beneath the optical build-up was found to improve the stability of the optical waveguides significantly. The results indicated of wavelength dependence to the aging factor with a failure mechanism. The factors affecting the performance and reliability of polymer-based optical waveguides on PCBs were discussed. Research limitations/implications - More experimental data and investigations of failure mechanisms are required to ultimately obtain sufficient reliability statistics for accurate life-time prediction models. Originality/value - Optical interconnects are seen as a promising solution to overcome performance limitations encountered with high-frequency electrical interconnections. As an emerging technology, only a limited amount of reliability data on optical/electrical packages is available. The paper investigates the influences of environmental stresses on board-embedded polymeric waveguides.

    AB - Purpose - To investigate the influences of environmental stresses on board-embedded polymeric waveguides. Design/methodology/approach - Optical multimode waveguides were embedded on printed circuit boards using commercial polymers. The optical - PCBs varying in board structure and in optical build-up materials were exposed to heat, moisture and ionic-contaminants in accelerated reliability tests. The influence of stress factors on the structural integrity and functional parameters, namely the refractive index and optical transmissivity, was investigated at the key communication wavelengths. Findings - Isothermal annealing reduced the refractive index to the greatest extent. The optical-PCB structure with an optical surface build-up layer was observed to be more vulnerable under temperature shock when compared with the optical-PCB with optical inner layer. The buffer layer beneath the optical build-up was found to improve the stability of the optical waveguides significantly. The results indicated of wavelength dependence to the aging factor with a failure mechanism. The factors affecting the performance and reliability of polymer-based optical waveguides on PCBs were discussed. Research limitations/implications - More experimental data and investigations of failure mechanisms are required to ultimately obtain sufficient reliability statistics for accurate life-time prediction models. Originality/value - Optical interconnects are seen as a promising solution to overcome performance limitations encountered with high-frequency electrical interconnections. As an emerging technology, only a limited amount of reliability data on optical/electrical packages is available. The paper investigates the influences of environmental stresses on board-embedded polymeric waveguides.

    KW - Polymers

    KW - Printed circuits

    KW - Product reliability

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