IR-sintering of ink-jet printed metal-nanoparticles on paper

Daniel Tobjörk (Corresponding Author), Harri Aarnio, Petri Pulkkinen, Roger Bollström, Anni Määttänen, Petri Ihalainen, Tapio Mäkelä, Jouko Peltonen, Martti Toivakka, Heikki Tenhu, Ronald Österbacka

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    145 Citations (Scopus)


    Sintering of printed metal nanoparticles can be made not only by conventional heating, but also by, e.g., electrical, microwave, plasma, laser and flash lamp annealing. We demonstrate sintering by using low-cost incandescent lamps as an effective way of obtaining highly conductive contacts of two types of ink-jet printed metal-nanoparticle inks on paper; both alkanethiol protected gold nanoparticles and a commercially available silver nanoparticle ink. This low-cost roll-to-roll compatible sintering process is especially suitable on paper substrates because of the high diffuse reflectance, relatively high thermal stability and low thermal conductivity of paper. A volume resistivity of around 10 μΩ cm was achieved of the inkjetted silver nanoparticles within 15 s of exposure to an IR lamp, which corresponds to a conductivity of 10–20% of that of bulk silver. Too long exposure time and too high intensity, however, lead to darkening of the paper fibers. Both the crack formation and the coffee ring effect of the inkjet printed gold nanoparticles were, furthermore, found to be reduced on paper as compared to glass or plastic substrates.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)2949-2955
    JournalThin Solid Films
    Issue number7
    Publication statusPublished - 2012
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


    Financial support is acknowledged from the European Regional Development Fund in South Finland and the Academy of Finland through the National Center of Excellence program. The authors also acknowledge EUV Technology for providing the SuMMIT software that was used for calculating the line-edge roughness.


    • printed electronics
    • nanoparticle sintering
    • photothermal sintering
    • paper substrate
    • ink-jet printing
    • resistivity


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