Josephson junctions in charge and phase picture: Theory and applications: Dissertation

Juha Hassel

    Research output: ThesisDissertationCollection of Articles

    Abstract

    Properties of weak links between two superconductors, or Josephson junctions, make them interesting for fundamental physics research. Since their discovery over four decades ago, they have provided a unique way to study the behavior of the superconducting quantum phase. More recently, ultra small, or mesoscopic, Josephson junctions with substantial single Cooper pair charging energy have gained interest due to their behavior as macroscopic quantum objects. In addition to the theoretical interest, Josephson junctions can be used as active elements in circuit applications. Particularly, in this Thesis we study two different devices. We develop the required theoretical treatments, derive device properties, and compare the results with experimental data. The first application is a Josephson voltage standard based on externally damped Superconductor - Insulator - Superconductor junctions. It consists of an array of large Josephson junctions connected in series and irradiated with a 70 GHz microwave signal. Phase locking the Josephson dynamics into the signal leads to the quantization of the voltage. This is utilized in metrology. We introduce a new circuit solution based on frequency dependent damping of the junctions. Optimization and some designs for practical arrays are presented. The purpose is to find such a design that the array is fast, has low power consumption and is as stable as possible. Arrays able to generate DC voltages of order 1 volt with metrological accuracy are demonstrated experimentally and their applicability in AC voltage calibrations is analyzed. The second application is the Bloch Oscillating Transistor (BOT). The BOT is based on controlling the Cooper pair current in an ultra small Josephson junction by means of quasiparticles tunneling through a normal junction. As part of the thesis work, the principle of operation is first demonstrated computationally. The model is then refined to yield quantitative predictions of the characteristics. Finally, an analytic theory for the device is developed and the properties as an amplifier are derived.
    Original languageEnglish
    QualificationDoctor Degree
    Awarding Institution
    • Aalto University
    Supervisors/Advisors
    • Hautojärvi, Pekka, Supervisor, External person
    Award date9 Nov 2004
    Place of PublicationEspoo
    Publisher
    Print ISBNs951-38-6418-9
    Electronic ISBNs951-38-6419-7
    Publication statusPublished - 2004
    MoE publication typeG5 Doctoral dissertation (article)

    Fingerprint

    Josephson junctions
    theses
    electric potential
    transistors
    SIS (superconductors)
    metrology
    locking
    charging
    alternating current
    amplifiers
    damping
    direct current
    microwaves
    physics
    optimization
    predictions
    energy

    Keywords

    • Josephson junction
    • quantum metrology
    • mesoscopic tunnel junctions

    Cite this

    Hassel, J. (2004). Josephson junctions in charge and phase picture: Theory and applications: Dissertation. Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Hassel, Juha. / Josephson junctions in charge and phase picture : Theory and applications: Dissertation. Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2004. 82 p.
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    abstract = "Properties of weak links between two superconductors, or Josephson junctions, make them interesting for fundamental physics research. Since their discovery over four decades ago, they have provided a unique way to study the behavior of the superconducting quantum phase. More recently, ultra small, or mesoscopic, Josephson junctions with substantial single Cooper pair charging energy have gained interest due to their behavior as macroscopic quantum objects. In addition to the theoretical interest, Josephson junctions can be used as active elements in circuit applications. Particularly, in this Thesis we study two different devices. We develop the required theoretical treatments, derive device properties, and compare the results with experimental data. The first application is a Josephson voltage standard based on externally damped Superconductor - Insulator - Superconductor junctions. It consists of an array of large Josephson junctions connected in series and irradiated with a 70 GHz microwave signal. Phase locking the Josephson dynamics into the signal leads to the quantization of the voltage. This is utilized in metrology. We introduce a new circuit solution based on frequency dependent damping of the junctions. Optimization and some designs for practical arrays are presented. The purpose is to find such a design that the array is fast, has low power consumption and is as stable as possible. Arrays able to generate DC voltages of order 1 volt with metrological accuracy are demonstrated experimentally and their applicability in AC voltage calibrations is analyzed. The second application is the Bloch Oscillating Transistor (BOT). The BOT is based on controlling the Cooper pair current in an ultra small Josephson junction by means of quasiparticles tunneling through a normal junction. As part of the thesis work, the principle of operation is first demonstrated computationally. The model is then refined to yield quantitative predictions of the characteristics. Finally, an analytic theory for the device is developed and the properties as an amplifier are derived.",
    keywords = "Josephson junction, quantum metrology, mesoscopic tunnel junctions",
    author = "Juha Hassel",
    year = "2004",
    language = "English",
    isbn = "951-38-6418-9",
    series = "VTT Publications",
    publisher = "VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland",
    number = "551",
    address = "Finland",
    school = "Aalto University",

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    Hassel, J 2004, 'Josephson junctions in charge and phase picture: Theory and applications: Dissertation', Doctor Degree, Aalto University, Espoo.

    Josephson junctions in charge and phase picture : Theory and applications: Dissertation. / Hassel, Juha.

    Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2004. 82 p.

    Research output: ThesisDissertationCollection of Articles

    TY - THES

    T1 - Josephson junctions in charge and phase picture

    T2 - Theory and applications: Dissertation

    AU - Hassel, Juha

    PY - 2004

    Y1 - 2004

    N2 - Properties of weak links between two superconductors, or Josephson junctions, make them interesting for fundamental physics research. Since their discovery over four decades ago, they have provided a unique way to study the behavior of the superconducting quantum phase. More recently, ultra small, or mesoscopic, Josephson junctions with substantial single Cooper pair charging energy have gained interest due to their behavior as macroscopic quantum objects. In addition to the theoretical interest, Josephson junctions can be used as active elements in circuit applications. Particularly, in this Thesis we study two different devices. We develop the required theoretical treatments, derive device properties, and compare the results with experimental data. The first application is a Josephson voltage standard based on externally damped Superconductor - Insulator - Superconductor junctions. It consists of an array of large Josephson junctions connected in series and irradiated with a 70 GHz microwave signal. Phase locking the Josephson dynamics into the signal leads to the quantization of the voltage. This is utilized in metrology. We introduce a new circuit solution based on frequency dependent damping of the junctions. Optimization and some designs for practical arrays are presented. The purpose is to find such a design that the array is fast, has low power consumption and is as stable as possible. Arrays able to generate DC voltages of order 1 volt with metrological accuracy are demonstrated experimentally and their applicability in AC voltage calibrations is analyzed. The second application is the Bloch Oscillating Transistor (BOT). The BOT is based on controlling the Cooper pair current in an ultra small Josephson junction by means of quasiparticles tunneling through a normal junction. As part of the thesis work, the principle of operation is first demonstrated computationally. The model is then refined to yield quantitative predictions of the characteristics. Finally, an analytic theory for the device is developed and the properties as an amplifier are derived.

    AB - Properties of weak links between two superconductors, or Josephson junctions, make them interesting for fundamental physics research. Since their discovery over four decades ago, they have provided a unique way to study the behavior of the superconducting quantum phase. More recently, ultra small, or mesoscopic, Josephson junctions with substantial single Cooper pair charging energy have gained interest due to their behavior as macroscopic quantum objects. In addition to the theoretical interest, Josephson junctions can be used as active elements in circuit applications. Particularly, in this Thesis we study two different devices. We develop the required theoretical treatments, derive device properties, and compare the results with experimental data. The first application is a Josephson voltage standard based on externally damped Superconductor - Insulator - Superconductor junctions. It consists of an array of large Josephson junctions connected in series and irradiated with a 70 GHz microwave signal. Phase locking the Josephson dynamics into the signal leads to the quantization of the voltage. This is utilized in metrology. We introduce a new circuit solution based on frequency dependent damping of the junctions. Optimization and some designs for practical arrays are presented. The purpose is to find such a design that the array is fast, has low power consumption and is as stable as possible. Arrays able to generate DC voltages of order 1 volt with metrological accuracy are demonstrated experimentally and their applicability in AC voltage calibrations is analyzed. The second application is the Bloch Oscillating Transistor (BOT). The BOT is based on controlling the Cooper pair current in an ultra small Josephson junction by means of quasiparticles tunneling through a normal junction. As part of the thesis work, the principle of operation is first demonstrated computationally. The model is then refined to yield quantitative predictions of the characteristics. Finally, an analytic theory for the device is developed and the properties as an amplifier are derived.

    KW - Josephson junction

    KW - quantum metrology

    KW - mesoscopic tunnel junctions

    M3 - Dissertation

    SN - 951-38-6418-9

    T3 - VTT Publications

    PB - VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland

    CY - Espoo

    ER -

    Hassel J. Josephson junctions in charge and phase picture: Theory and applications: Dissertation. Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2004. 82 p.