Label-free C-reactive protein electronic detection with an electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistor-based immunosensor

Maria Magliulo (Corresponding Author), Donato De Tullio, Inger M. Vikholm-Lundin, Willem M. Albers, Tony Munter, Kyriaki Manoli, Gerardo Palazzo, Luisa Torsi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In this contribution, we propose a label-free immunosensor, based on a novel type of electrolyte-gated field-effect transistor (EGOFET), for ultrasensitive detection of the C-reactive protein (CRP). The recognition layer of the biosensor is fabricated by physical adsorption of the anti-CRP monoclonal antibody onto a poly-3-hexyl thiophene (P3HT) organic semiconductor surface. A supplementary nonionic hydrophilic polymer is used as a blocking agent preventing nonspecific interactions and allowing a better orientation of the antibodies immobilized onto the P3HT surface. The whole biomolecule immobilization procedure does not require any pretreatment of the organic semiconductor surface, and the whole functionalization process is completed in less than 30 min. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measurements were performed to assess the amount of biomolecules physisorbed onto the P3HT and to evaluate the CRP binding proprieties of the deposited anti-CRP layer. A partial surface coverage of about 23 % of adsorbed antibody molecules was found to most efficiently sense the CRP. The electrical performance of the EGOFET immunosensor was comparable to that of a bare P3HT EGOFET device, and the obtained CRP calibration curve was linear over six orders of magnitude (from 4 pM to 2 µM). The relative standard deviation of the individual calibration points, measured on immunosensors fabricated on different chips, ranged between 1 and 14 %, and a detection limit of 2 pM (220 ng/L) was established. The novel electronic immunosensor is compatible with low-cost fabrication procedures and was successfully employed for the detection of the CRP biomarker in the clinically relevant matrix serum.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3943-3952
JournalAnalytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Volume408
Issue number15
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Immunosensors
Organic field effect transistors
C-Reactive Protein
Electrolytes
Labels
Thiophenes
Semiconductors
Semiconducting organic compounds
Biomolecules
Calibration
Immobilized Antibodies
Surface Plasmon Resonance
Surface plasmon resonance
Biosensing Techniques
Biomarkers
Field effect transistors
Protein Binding
Biosensors
Immobilization
Adsorption

Keywords

  • C-reactive protein
  • electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistor
  • immunosensor
  • label-free electronic detection

Cite this

Magliulo, Maria ; De Tullio, Donato ; Vikholm-Lundin, Inger M. ; Albers, Willem M. ; Munter, Tony ; Manoli, Kyriaki ; Palazzo, Gerardo ; Torsi, Luisa. / Label-free C-reactive protein electronic detection with an electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistor-based immunosensor. In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. 2016 ; Vol. 408, No. 15. pp. 3943-3952.
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title = "Label-free C-reactive protein electronic detection with an electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistor-based immunosensor",
abstract = "In this contribution, we propose a label-free immunosensor, based on a novel type of electrolyte-gated field-effect transistor (EGOFET), for ultrasensitive detection of the C-reactive protein (CRP). The recognition layer of the biosensor is fabricated by physical adsorption of the anti-CRP monoclonal antibody onto a poly-3-hexyl thiophene (P3HT) organic semiconductor surface. A supplementary nonionic hydrophilic polymer is used as a blocking agent preventing nonspecific interactions and allowing a better orientation of the antibodies immobilized onto the P3HT surface. The whole biomolecule immobilization procedure does not require any pretreatment of the organic semiconductor surface, and the whole functionalization process is completed in less than 30 min. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measurements were performed to assess the amount of biomolecules physisorbed onto the P3HT and to evaluate the CRP binding proprieties of the deposited anti-CRP layer. A partial surface coverage of about 23 {\%} of adsorbed antibody molecules was found to most efficiently sense the CRP. The electrical performance of the EGOFET immunosensor was comparable to that of a bare P3HT EGOFET device, and the obtained CRP calibration curve was linear over six orders of magnitude (from 4 pM to 2 µM). The relative standard deviation of the individual calibration points, measured on immunosensors fabricated on different chips, ranged between 1 and 14 {\%}, and a detection limit of 2 pM (220 ng/L) was established. The novel electronic immunosensor is compatible with low-cost fabrication procedures and was successfully employed for the detection of the CRP biomarker in the clinically relevant matrix serum.",
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Magliulo, M, De Tullio, D, Vikholm-Lundin, IM, Albers, WM, Munter, T, Manoli, K, Palazzo, G & Torsi, L 2016, 'Label-free C-reactive protein electronic detection with an electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistor-based immunosensor', Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, vol. 408, no. 15, pp. 3943-3952. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-016-9502-3

Label-free C-reactive protein electronic detection with an electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistor-based immunosensor. / Magliulo, Maria (Corresponding Author); De Tullio, Donato; Vikholm-Lundin, Inger M.; Albers, Willem M.; Munter, Tony; Manoli, Kyriaki; Palazzo, Gerardo; Torsi, Luisa.

In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, Vol. 408, No. 15, 2016, p. 3943-3952.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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T1 - Label-free C-reactive protein electronic detection with an electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistor-based immunosensor

AU - Magliulo, Maria

AU - De Tullio, Donato

AU - Vikholm-Lundin, Inger M.

AU - Albers, Willem M.

AU - Munter, Tony

AU - Manoli, Kyriaki

AU - Palazzo, Gerardo

AU - Torsi, Luisa

PY - 2016

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N2 - In this contribution, we propose a label-free immunosensor, based on a novel type of electrolyte-gated field-effect transistor (EGOFET), for ultrasensitive detection of the C-reactive protein (CRP). The recognition layer of the biosensor is fabricated by physical adsorption of the anti-CRP monoclonal antibody onto a poly-3-hexyl thiophene (P3HT) organic semiconductor surface. A supplementary nonionic hydrophilic polymer is used as a blocking agent preventing nonspecific interactions and allowing a better orientation of the antibodies immobilized onto the P3HT surface. The whole biomolecule immobilization procedure does not require any pretreatment of the organic semiconductor surface, and the whole functionalization process is completed in less than 30 min. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measurements were performed to assess the amount of biomolecules physisorbed onto the P3HT and to evaluate the CRP binding proprieties of the deposited anti-CRP layer. A partial surface coverage of about 23 % of adsorbed antibody molecules was found to most efficiently sense the CRP. The electrical performance of the EGOFET immunosensor was comparable to that of a bare P3HT EGOFET device, and the obtained CRP calibration curve was linear over six orders of magnitude (from 4 pM to 2 µM). The relative standard deviation of the individual calibration points, measured on immunosensors fabricated on different chips, ranged between 1 and 14 %, and a detection limit of 2 pM (220 ng/L) was established. The novel electronic immunosensor is compatible with low-cost fabrication procedures and was successfully employed for the detection of the CRP biomarker in the clinically relevant matrix serum.

AB - In this contribution, we propose a label-free immunosensor, based on a novel type of electrolyte-gated field-effect transistor (EGOFET), for ultrasensitive detection of the C-reactive protein (CRP). The recognition layer of the biosensor is fabricated by physical adsorption of the anti-CRP monoclonal antibody onto a poly-3-hexyl thiophene (P3HT) organic semiconductor surface. A supplementary nonionic hydrophilic polymer is used as a blocking agent preventing nonspecific interactions and allowing a better orientation of the antibodies immobilized onto the P3HT surface. The whole biomolecule immobilization procedure does not require any pretreatment of the organic semiconductor surface, and the whole functionalization process is completed in less than 30 min. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measurements were performed to assess the amount of biomolecules physisorbed onto the P3HT and to evaluate the CRP binding proprieties of the deposited anti-CRP layer. A partial surface coverage of about 23 % of adsorbed antibody molecules was found to most efficiently sense the CRP. The electrical performance of the EGOFET immunosensor was comparable to that of a bare P3HT EGOFET device, and the obtained CRP calibration curve was linear over six orders of magnitude (from 4 pM to 2 µM). The relative standard deviation of the individual calibration points, measured on immunosensors fabricated on different chips, ranged between 1 and 14 %, and a detection limit of 2 pM (220 ng/L) was established. The novel electronic immunosensor is compatible with low-cost fabrication procedures and was successfully employed for the detection of the CRP biomarker in the clinically relevant matrix serum.

KW - C-reactive protein

KW - electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistor

KW - immunosensor

KW - label-free electronic detection

U2 - 10.1007/s00216-016-9502-3

DO - 10.1007/s00216-016-9502-3

M3 - Article

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SP - 3943

EP - 3952

JO - Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

JF - Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

SN - 1618-2642

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ER -