Large-scale decontamination of disposable FFP2 and FFP3 respirators by hydrogen peroxide vapour, Finland, April to June 2020

Katri Laatikainen (Corresponding Author), Markku Mesilaakso, Ilpo Kulmala, Erja Makela, Petri Ruutu, Outi Lyytikainen, Susanna Tella, Tarmo Humppi, Satu Salo, Tuuli Haataja, Kristiina Helminen, Henri Karppinen, Heli Kahkonen, Tarja Vainiola, Kirsimarja Blomqvist, Sirpa Laitinen, Kati Peltonen, Marko Laaksonen, Timo Ristimaki, Jouni Koivisto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Background: The shortage of FFP2 and FFP3 respirators posed a serious threat to the operation of the healthcare system at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Aim: Our aim was to develop and validate a largescale facility that uses hydrogen peroxide vapour for the decontamination of used respirators. Methods: A multidisciplinary and multisectoral ad hoc group of experts representing various organisations was assembled to implement the collection and transport of used FFP2 and FFP3 respirators from hospitals covering 86% of the Finnish population. A large-scale decontamination facility using hydrogen peroxide vapour was designed and constructed. Microbiological tests were used to confirm efficacy of hydrogen peroxide vapour decontamination together with a test to assess the effect of decontamination on the filtering efficacy and fit of respirators. Bacterial and fungal growth in stored respirators was determined by standard methods. Results: Large-scale hydrogen peroxide vapour decontamination of a range of FFP2 and FFP3 respirator models effectively reduced the recovery of biological indicators: Geobacillus stearothermophilus and Bacillus atrophaeus spores, as well as model virus bacteriophage MS2. The filtering efficacy and facial fit after hydrogen peroxide vapour decontamination were not affected by the process. Microbial growth in the hydrogen peroxide vapourtreated respirators indicated appropriate microbial cleanliness. Conclusions: Large-scale hydrogen peroxide vapour decontamination was validated. After effective decontamination, no significant changes in the key properties of the respirators were detected. European Union regulations should incorporate a facilitated pathway to allow reuse of appropriately decontaminated respirators in a severe pandemic when unused respirators are not available.

Original languageEnglish
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 17 Mar 2022
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


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