Lignocellulosic ethanol

From science to industry

Liisa Viikari, Jari Vehmaanperä, Anu Koivula (Corresponding Author)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

148 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Lignocellulosic raw materials, not competing with food production, can provide environmental, economic, and strategic benefits for the production of biofuels. The cost of biomass-based biotechnical ethanol production has been recently reduced significantly, mainly due to advances in the conversion techniques; i.e. by improved enzymes and new yeast strains. Conversion of the cellulosic components into fermentable sugars is, however, still the major technological and economical bottleneck in the production of fuels or other high-volume commodity products from cellulosic biomass. Especially, the enzymatic hydrolysis still forms a major cost factor. The targets for reducing the costs of biotechnical conversion processes of lignocelluloses to ethanol can be divided into three categories: the costs of enzymes, the costs of produced sugars and the costs of ethanol production. The efficiencies of individual enzymes can be improved by designing enzymes with optimal domain structures and binding properties, and with higher specific activity, lower end-product inhibition and higher thermal stability, as well as by optimizing the production processes. The cost of the enzymatic hydrolysis is dependent on the efficiency, yield and costs of the pretreatment, synergistic action of cellulases and accessory enzymes, as well as on the needed amount of externally added enzymes. The costs of ethanol production are further affected by the yield, concentration and production rate of ethanol. This work reviews the major bottlenecks in the conversion process, as well as highlights recent approaches to overcome these problems.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)13-24
Number of pages11
JournalBiomass and Bioenergy
Volume46
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2012
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

ethanol
Ethanol
industry
ethanol production
Enzymes
enzymes
cost
enzyme
Costs
Industry
enzymatic hydrolysis
Enzymatic hydrolysis
sugars
Sugars
fuel production
lignocellulose
environmental economics
cellulases
binding properties
hydrolysis

Keywords

  • Ethanol
  • lignocelluloses
  • Trichoderma reesei
  • enzymes
  • cellulases
  • hydrolysis

Cite this

Viikari, Liisa ; Vehmaanperä, Jari ; Koivula, Anu. / Lignocellulosic ethanol : From science to industry. In: Biomass and Bioenergy. 2012 ; Vol. 46. pp. 13-24.
@article{5fb98f5a72f64b7e8713a944cf5466c1,
title = "Lignocellulosic ethanol: From science to industry",
abstract = "Lignocellulosic raw materials, not competing with food production, can provide environmental, economic, and strategic benefits for the production of biofuels. The cost of biomass-based biotechnical ethanol production has been recently reduced significantly, mainly due to advances in the conversion techniques; i.e. by improved enzymes and new yeast strains. Conversion of the cellulosic components into fermentable sugars is, however, still the major technological and economical bottleneck in the production of fuels or other high-volume commodity products from cellulosic biomass. Especially, the enzymatic hydrolysis still forms a major cost factor. The targets for reducing the costs of biotechnical conversion processes of lignocelluloses to ethanol can be divided into three categories: the costs of enzymes, the costs of produced sugars and the costs of ethanol production. The efficiencies of individual enzymes can be improved by designing enzymes with optimal domain structures and binding properties, and with higher specific activity, lower end-product inhibition and higher thermal stability, as well as by optimizing the production processes. The cost of the enzymatic hydrolysis is dependent on the efficiency, yield and costs of the pretreatment, synergistic action of cellulases and accessory enzymes, as well as on the needed amount of externally added enzymes. The costs of ethanol production are further affected by the yield, concentration and production rate of ethanol. This work reviews the major bottlenecks in the conversion process, as well as highlights recent approaches to overcome these problems.",
keywords = "Ethanol, lignocelluloses, Trichoderma reesei, enzymes, cellulases, hydrolysis",
author = "Liisa Viikari and Jari Vehmaanper{\"a} and Anu Koivula",
year = "2012",
doi = "10.1016/j.biombioe.2012.05.008",
language = "English",
volume = "46",
pages = "13--24",
journal = "Biomass and Bioenergy",
issn = "0961-9534",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

Lignocellulosic ethanol : From science to industry. / Viikari, Liisa; Vehmaanperä, Jari; Koivula, Anu (Corresponding Author).

In: Biomass and Bioenergy, Vol. 46, 2012, p. 13-24.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Lignocellulosic ethanol

T2 - From science to industry

AU - Viikari, Liisa

AU - Vehmaanperä, Jari

AU - Koivula, Anu

PY - 2012

Y1 - 2012

N2 - Lignocellulosic raw materials, not competing with food production, can provide environmental, economic, and strategic benefits for the production of biofuels. The cost of biomass-based biotechnical ethanol production has been recently reduced significantly, mainly due to advances in the conversion techniques; i.e. by improved enzymes and new yeast strains. Conversion of the cellulosic components into fermentable sugars is, however, still the major technological and economical bottleneck in the production of fuels or other high-volume commodity products from cellulosic biomass. Especially, the enzymatic hydrolysis still forms a major cost factor. The targets for reducing the costs of biotechnical conversion processes of lignocelluloses to ethanol can be divided into three categories: the costs of enzymes, the costs of produced sugars and the costs of ethanol production. The efficiencies of individual enzymes can be improved by designing enzymes with optimal domain structures and binding properties, and with higher specific activity, lower end-product inhibition and higher thermal stability, as well as by optimizing the production processes. The cost of the enzymatic hydrolysis is dependent on the efficiency, yield and costs of the pretreatment, synergistic action of cellulases and accessory enzymes, as well as on the needed amount of externally added enzymes. The costs of ethanol production are further affected by the yield, concentration and production rate of ethanol. This work reviews the major bottlenecks in the conversion process, as well as highlights recent approaches to overcome these problems.

AB - Lignocellulosic raw materials, not competing with food production, can provide environmental, economic, and strategic benefits for the production of biofuels. The cost of biomass-based biotechnical ethanol production has been recently reduced significantly, mainly due to advances in the conversion techniques; i.e. by improved enzymes and new yeast strains. Conversion of the cellulosic components into fermentable sugars is, however, still the major technological and economical bottleneck in the production of fuels or other high-volume commodity products from cellulosic biomass. Especially, the enzymatic hydrolysis still forms a major cost factor. The targets for reducing the costs of biotechnical conversion processes of lignocelluloses to ethanol can be divided into three categories: the costs of enzymes, the costs of produced sugars and the costs of ethanol production. The efficiencies of individual enzymes can be improved by designing enzymes with optimal domain structures and binding properties, and with higher specific activity, lower end-product inhibition and higher thermal stability, as well as by optimizing the production processes. The cost of the enzymatic hydrolysis is dependent on the efficiency, yield and costs of the pretreatment, synergistic action of cellulases and accessory enzymes, as well as on the needed amount of externally added enzymes. The costs of ethanol production are further affected by the yield, concentration and production rate of ethanol. This work reviews the major bottlenecks in the conversion process, as well as highlights recent approaches to overcome these problems.

KW - Ethanol

KW - lignocelluloses

KW - Trichoderma reesei

KW - enzymes

KW - cellulases

KW - hydrolysis

U2 - 10.1016/j.biombioe.2012.05.008

DO - 10.1016/j.biombioe.2012.05.008

M3 - Article

VL - 46

SP - 13

EP - 24

JO - Biomass and Bioenergy

JF - Biomass and Bioenergy

SN - 0961-9534

ER -