The share of bioenergy, including waste pulping liquors and wood fuels, in the consumption of primary energy is about 15 % in Finland, i.e. the highest in the OECD countries. There is a considerable additional use potential in cooking liquors, wood residues and agricultural crops. Compared to fossil fuels, the extent of utilization is determined primarily by the production cost of biomass, as well as by advanced conversion technology. Forest residues will be the most attractive and economical resource compared to agrobiomass, as Scandinavia's geographical position is northern and hence the harvest levels are rather low. To decrease CO2 emissions various measures will be needed: energy saving, replacing fossil fuel fired condensed power plants by CHP (combined heat and power), nuclear energy, natural gas, renewable wind and biomass, as well as reforestation as carbon sink. In CHP applications, the driving force for R & D is a higher electricity yield with a constant heat load. For biomass, the most attractive new alternatives are IGCC in a large scale and bio-oil fuelled diesel plants in a small scale parallel to today's commercial fluid-bed combustion technology. In the cogeneration and biomass scenario by VTT with carbon sinks, the CO2 emissions in Finland could, in the long term, be decreased at moderate costs by 20-40 % of the present level, and the power production could be increased by 50 % with one additional nuclear reactor. VTT's present research activities cover mainly development of IGCC and diesel power plants for various forms of biomass.
- diesel power plants
- integrated gasification-combined cycle
- power-to-heat ratio