Long-Term Variations in Some Physical Parameters of the Baltic Sea

Lasse Makkonen, Jouko Launiainen, Kimmo Kahma, Pekka Alenius

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter or book articleProfessional

    10 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Properties of time-series of water temperature, salinity, river runoff, sea level and ice conditions from the Baltic Sea area were studied. Air and water temperatures reveal a strong airsea coupling and the water salinity has been found to have a slight increasing trend during the first half of this century. An estimate of the river runoff to the Baltic Sea shows a decreasing trend at the same time. The variance of sea level changes do not show any noticeable trend after 1920′s, suggesting that there recently has been no significant change in the cyclonic activity in the Baltic Sea area. The data on ice conditions in Helsinki show a decrease of 1 1/2 months in the length of the ice covered season from 1860′s to 1970′s. The maximum annual ice extent of the Baltic Sea also reveals a decreasing trend in the 19th century. It correlates (r=-0.89) with the mean winter air temperature in Helsinki, which allows prognosis of the future mean maximum ice coverage on the basis of predicted mean air temperatures.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationClimatic Changes on a Yearly to Millenial Basis
    Subtitle of host publicationGeological, Historical and Instrumental Records
    EditorsN-A. Möner, W. Karlén
    Pages391-399
    ISBN (Electronic)978-94-015-7692-5
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 1984
    MoE publication typeNot Eligible

    Fingerprint

    ice
    air temperature
    water temperature
    runoff
    river
    sea level change
    sea ice
    sea level
    time series
    salinity
    trend
    parameter
    sea
    winter
    water salinity

    Cite this

    Makkonen, L., Launiainen, J., Kahma, K., & Alenius, P. (1984). Long-Term Variations in Some Physical Parameters of the Baltic Sea. In N-A. Möner, & W. Karlén (Eds.), Climatic Changes on a Yearly to Millenial Basis: Geological, Historical and Instrumental Records (pp. 391-399) https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-015-7692-5_43
    Makkonen, Lasse ; Launiainen, Jouko ; Kahma, Kimmo ; Alenius, Pekka. / Long-Term Variations in Some Physical Parameters of the Baltic Sea. Climatic Changes on a Yearly to Millenial Basis: Geological, Historical and Instrumental Records. editor / N-A. Möner ; W. Karlén. 1984. pp. 391-399
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    abstract = "Properties of time-series of water temperature, salinity, river runoff, sea level and ice conditions from the Baltic Sea area were studied. Air and water temperatures reveal a strong airsea coupling and the water salinity has been found to have a slight increasing trend during the first half of this century. An estimate of the river runoff to the Baltic Sea shows a decreasing trend at the same time. The variance of sea level changes do not show any noticeable trend after 1920′s, suggesting that there recently has been no significant change in the cyclonic activity in the Baltic Sea area. The data on ice conditions in Helsinki show a decrease of 1 1/2 months in the length of the ice covered season from 1860′s to 1970′s. The maximum annual ice extent of the Baltic Sea also reveals a decreasing trend in the 19th century. It correlates (r=-0.89) with the mean winter air temperature in Helsinki, which allows prognosis of the future mean maximum ice coverage on the basis of predicted mean air temperatures.",
    author = "Lasse Makkonen and Jouko Launiainen and Kimmo Kahma and Pekka Alenius",
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    Makkonen, L, Launiainen, J, Kahma, K & Alenius, P 1984, Long-Term Variations in Some Physical Parameters of the Baltic Sea. in N-A Möner & W Karlén (eds), Climatic Changes on a Yearly to Millenial Basis: Geological, Historical and Instrumental Records. pp. 391-399. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-015-7692-5_43

    Long-Term Variations in Some Physical Parameters of the Baltic Sea. / Makkonen, Lasse; Launiainen, Jouko; Kahma, Kimmo; Alenius, Pekka.

    Climatic Changes on a Yearly to Millenial Basis: Geological, Historical and Instrumental Records. ed. / N-A. Möner; W. Karlén. 1984. p. 391-399.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter or book articleProfessional

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    T1 - Long-Term Variations in Some Physical Parameters of the Baltic Sea

    AU - Makkonen, Lasse

    AU - Launiainen, Jouko

    AU - Kahma, Kimmo

    AU - Alenius, Pekka

    PY - 1984

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    N2 - Properties of time-series of water temperature, salinity, river runoff, sea level and ice conditions from the Baltic Sea area were studied. Air and water temperatures reveal a strong airsea coupling and the water salinity has been found to have a slight increasing trend during the first half of this century. An estimate of the river runoff to the Baltic Sea shows a decreasing trend at the same time. The variance of sea level changes do not show any noticeable trend after 1920′s, suggesting that there recently has been no significant change in the cyclonic activity in the Baltic Sea area. The data on ice conditions in Helsinki show a decrease of 1 1/2 months in the length of the ice covered season from 1860′s to 1970′s. The maximum annual ice extent of the Baltic Sea also reveals a decreasing trend in the 19th century. It correlates (r=-0.89) with the mean winter air temperature in Helsinki, which allows prognosis of the future mean maximum ice coverage on the basis of predicted mean air temperatures.

    AB - Properties of time-series of water temperature, salinity, river runoff, sea level and ice conditions from the Baltic Sea area were studied. Air and water temperatures reveal a strong airsea coupling and the water salinity has been found to have a slight increasing trend during the first half of this century. An estimate of the river runoff to the Baltic Sea shows a decreasing trend at the same time. The variance of sea level changes do not show any noticeable trend after 1920′s, suggesting that there recently has been no significant change in the cyclonic activity in the Baltic Sea area. The data on ice conditions in Helsinki show a decrease of 1 1/2 months in the length of the ice covered season from 1860′s to 1970′s. The maximum annual ice extent of the Baltic Sea also reveals a decreasing trend in the 19th century. It correlates (r=-0.89) with the mean winter air temperature in Helsinki, which allows prognosis of the future mean maximum ice coverage on the basis of predicted mean air temperatures.

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    SP - 391

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    BT - Climatic Changes on a Yearly to Millenial Basis

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    Makkonen L, Launiainen J, Kahma K, Alenius P. Long-Term Variations in Some Physical Parameters of the Baltic Sea. In Möner N-A, Karlén W, editors, Climatic Changes on a Yearly to Millenial Basis: Geological, Historical and Instrumental Records. 1984. p. 391-399 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-015-7692-5_43