Long-Term Variations in Some Physical Parameters of the Baltic Sea

Lasse Makkonen, Jouko Launiainen, Kimmo Kahma, Pekka Alenius

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter or book articleProfessional

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Properties of time-series of water temperature, salinity, river runoff, sea level and ice conditions from the Baltic Sea area were studied. Air and water temperatures reveal a strong airsea coupling and the water salinity has been found to have a slight increasing trend during the first half of this century. An estimate of the river runoff to the Baltic Sea shows a decreasing trend at the same time. The variance of sea level changes do not show any noticeable trend after 1920′s, suggesting that there recently has been no significant change in the cyclonic activity in the Baltic Sea area. The data on ice conditions in Helsinki show a decrease of 1 1/2 months in the length of the ice covered season from 1860′s to 1970′s. The maximum annual ice extent of the Baltic Sea also reveals a decreasing trend in the 19th century. It correlates (r=-0.89) with the mean winter air temperature in Helsinki, which allows prognosis of the future mean maximum ice coverage on the basis of predicted mean air temperatures.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationClimatic Changes on a Yearly to Millenial Basis
Subtitle of host publicationGeological, Historical and Instrumental Records
EditorsN-A. Möner, W. Karlén
Pages391-399
ISBN (Electronic)978-94-015-7692-5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1984
MoE publication typeNot Eligible

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ice
air temperature
water temperature
runoff
river
sea level change
sea ice
sea level
time series
salinity
trend
parameter
sea
winter
water salinity

Cite this

Makkonen, L., Launiainen, J., Kahma, K., & Alenius, P. (1984). Long-Term Variations in Some Physical Parameters of the Baltic Sea. In N-A. Möner, & W. Karlén (Eds.), Climatic Changes on a Yearly to Millenial Basis: Geological, Historical and Instrumental Records (pp. 391-399) https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-015-7692-5_43
Makkonen, Lasse ; Launiainen, Jouko ; Kahma, Kimmo ; Alenius, Pekka. / Long-Term Variations in Some Physical Parameters of the Baltic Sea. Climatic Changes on a Yearly to Millenial Basis: Geological, Historical and Instrumental Records. editor / N-A. Möner ; W. Karlén. 1984. pp. 391-399
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Makkonen, L, Launiainen, J, Kahma, K & Alenius, P 1984, Long-Term Variations in Some Physical Parameters of the Baltic Sea. in N-A Möner & W Karlén (eds), Climatic Changes on a Yearly to Millenial Basis: Geological, Historical and Instrumental Records. pp. 391-399. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-015-7692-5_43

Long-Term Variations in Some Physical Parameters of the Baltic Sea. / Makkonen, Lasse; Launiainen, Jouko; Kahma, Kimmo; Alenius, Pekka.

Climatic Changes on a Yearly to Millenial Basis: Geological, Historical and Instrumental Records. ed. / N-A. Möner; W. Karlén. 1984. p. 391-399.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter or book articleProfessional

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T1 - Long-Term Variations in Some Physical Parameters of the Baltic Sea

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AU - Launiainen, Jouko

AU - Kahma, Kimmo

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N2 - Properties of time-series of water temperature, salinity, river runoff, sea level and ice conditions from the Baltic Sea area were studied. Air and water temperatures reveal a strong airsea coupling and the water salinity has been found to have a slight increasing trend during the first half of this century. An estimate of the river runoff to the Baltic Sea shows a decreasing trend at the same time. The variance of sea level changes do not show any noticeable trend after 1920′s, suggesting that there recently has been no significant change in the cyclonic activity in the Baltic Sea area. The data on ice conditions in Helsinki show a decrease of 1 1/2 months in the length of the ice covered season from 1860′s to 1970′s. The maximum annual ice extent of the Baltic Sea also reveals a decreasing trend in the 19th century. It correlates (r=-0.89) with the mean winter air temperature in Helsinki, which allows prognosis of the future mean maximum ice coverage on the basis of predicted mean air temperatures.

AB - Properties of time-series of water temperature, salinity, river runoff, sea level and ice conditions from the Baltic Sea area were studied. Air and water temperatures reveal a strong airsea coupling and the water salinity has been found to have a slight increasing trend during the first half of this century. An estimate of the river runoff to the Baltic Sea shows a decreasing trend at the same time. The variance of sea level changes do not show any noticeable trend after 1920′s, suggesting that there recently has been no significant change in the cyclonic activity in the Baltic Sea area. The data on ice conditions in Helsinki show a decrease of 1 1/2 months in the length of the ice covered season from 1860′s to 1970′s. The maximum annual ice extent of the Baltic Sea also reveals a decreasing trend in the 19th century. It correlates (r=-0.89) with the mean winter air temperature in Helsinki, which allows prognosis of the future mean maximum ice coverage on the basis of predicted mean air temperatures.

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SN - 978-90-481-8399-9

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BT - Climatic Changes on a Yearly to Millenial Basis

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Makkonen L, Launiainen J, Kahma K, Alenius P. Long-Term Variations in Some Physical Parameters of the Baltic Sea. In Möner N-A, Karlén W, editors, Climatic Changes on a Yearly to Millenial Basis: Geological, Historical and Instrumental Records. 1984. p. 391-399 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-015-7692-5_43