Loosening of globular structure under alkaline pH affects accessibility of ß-lactoglobulin to tyrosinase-induced oxidation and subsequent cross-linking

Riitta Partanen (Corresponding Author), Mika Torkkeli, Maarit Hellman, Perttu Permi, Ritva Serimaa, Johanna Buchert, Maija-Liisa Mattinen

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Globular proteins such as β-lactoglobulin (BLG) are poorly accessible to enzymes. We have studied susceptibility of BLG to oxidation by Trichoderma reesei (TrTyr) and Agaricus bisporus (AbTyr) tyrosinases and subsequent intermolecular cross-linking with respect to pH-induced structural changes. We evaluated pH-induced structural changes in BLG using circular dichroism, tryptophan fluorescence and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements, where after these results were correlated with the analysis of cross-linking by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Oxygen consumption measurement and changes in radii of gyration determined by SAXS during the enzyme-induced oxidation at the respective reaction conditions were also followed. Intermolecular cross-linking of BLG by TrTyr was found at pH 9 but not at pH 7.5. AbTyr was unable to catalyze cross-linking at pH 7.5 or pH 9. Increased accessibility and cross-linking by TrTyr was addressed to loosening of the three dimensional structure of the protein, increased flexibility of the backbone as well as partial hydrolysis. In addition to basic research of the effect of protein folding on enzymatic cross-linking the research results have significance on the exploitation of TrTyr at alkaline conditions.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)131-138
JournalEnzyme and Microbial Technology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2011
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed



  • ß-lactoglobulin
  • unfolding
  • hydrolysis
  • accessibility
  • tyrosinase
  • oxidation
  • cross-linking

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