Low-loss silicon slot waveguides and couplers fabricated with optical lithography and atomic layer deposition

Antti Säynätjoki (Corresponding Author), Lasse Karvonen, Tapani Alasaarela, X Tu, T. Y. Liow, Marianne Hiltunen, Ari Tervonen, G. Q. Lo, Seppo Honkanen

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    52 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    We demonstrate low-loss silicon slot waveguides patterned with 248 nm deep-UV lithography and filled with atomic layer deposited aluminum oxide. Propagation losses less than 5 dB/cm are achieved with the waveguides. The devices are fabricated using low-temperature CMOS compatible processes. We also demonstrate simple, compact and efficient strip-to-slot waveguide couplers. With a coupler as short as 10 µm, coupling loss is less than 0.15 dB. The low-index and low-nonlinearity filling material allows nonlinearities nearly two orders of magnitude smaller than in silicon waveguides. Therefore, these waveguides are a good candidate for linear photonic devices on the silicon platform, and for distortion-free signal transmission channels between different parts of a silicon all-optical chip. The low-nonlinearity slot waveguides and robust couplers also facilitate a 50-fold local change of the waveguide nonlinearity within the chip by a simple mask design.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)26275-26282
    Number of pages8
    JournalOptics Express
    Volume19
    Issue number27
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2011
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Fingerprint

    atomic layer epitaxy
    slots
    couplers
    lithography
    waveguides
    silicon
    nonlinearity
    chips
    signal transmission
    strip
    CMOS
    masks
    platforms
    aluminum oxides
    photonics
    propagation

    Keywords

    • Integrated optics materials
    • Nonlinear
    • Nanostructure fabrication
    • Waveguides
    • Guided wave applications

    Cite this

    Säynätjoki, A., Karvonen, L., Alasaarela, T., Tu, X., Liow, T. Y., Hiltunen, M., ... Honkanen, S. (2011). Low-loss silicon slot waveguides and couplers fabricated with optical lithography and atomic layer deposition. Optics Express, 19(27), 26275-26282. https://doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.026275
    Säynätjoki, Antti ; Karvonen, Lasse ; Alasaarela, Tapani ; Tu, X ; Liow, T. Y. ; Hiltunen, Marianne ; Tervonen, Ari ; Lo, G. Q. ; Honkanen, Seppo. / Low-loss silicon slot waveguides and couplers fabricated with optical lithography and atomic layer deposition. In: Optics Express. 2011 ; Vol. 19, No. 27. pp. 26275-26282.
    @article{5e4b7624a14e454c9bfad91594ba23a9,
    title = "Low-loss silicon slot waveguides and couplers fabricated with optical lithography and atomic layer deposition",
    abstract = "We demonstrate low-loss silicon slot waveguides patterned with 248 nm deep-UV lithography and filled with atomic layer deposited aluminum oxide. Propagation losses less than 5 dB/cm are achieved with the waveguides. The devices are fabricated using low-temperature CMOS compatible processes. We also demonstrate simple, compact and efficient strip-to-slot waveguide couplers. With a coupler as short as 10 µm, coupling loss is less than 0.15 dB. The low-index and low-nonlinearity filling material allows nonlinearities nearly two orders of magnitude smaller than in silicon waveguides. Therefore, these waveguides are a good candidate for linear photonic devices on the silicon platform, and for distortion-free signal transmission channels between different parts of a silicon all-optical chip. The low-nonlinearity slot waveguides and robust couplers also facilitate a 50-fold local change of the waveguide nonlinearity within the chip by a simple mask design.",
    keywords = "Integrated optics materials, Nonlinear, Nanostructure fabrication, Waveguides, Guided wave applications",
    author = "Antti S{\"a}yn{\"a}tjoki and Lasse Karvonen and Tapani Alasaarela and X Tu and Liow, {T. Y.} and Marianne Hiltunen and Ari Tervonen and Lo, {G. Q.} and Seppo Honkanen",
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    Säynätjoki, A, Karvonen, L, Alasaarela, T, Tu, X, Liow, TY, Hiltunen, M, Tervonen, A, Lo, GQ & Honkanen, S 2011, 'Low-loss silicon slot waveguides and couplers fabricated with optical lithography and atomic layer deposition', Optics Express, vol. 19, no. 27, pp. 26275-26282. https://doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.026275

    Low-loss silicon slot waveguides and couplers fabricated with optical lithography and atomic layer deposition. / Säynätjoki, Antti (Corresponding Author); Karvonen, Lasse; Alasaarela, Tapani; Tu, X; Liow, T. Y.; Hiltunen, Marianne; Tervonen, Ari; Lo, G. Q.; Honkanen, Seppo.

    In: Optics Express, Vol. 19, No. 27, 2011, p. 26275-26282.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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    T1 - Low-loss silicon slot waveguides and couplers fabricated with optical lithography and atomic layer deposition

    AU - Säynätjoki, Antti

    AU - Karvonen, Lasse

    AU - Alasaarela, Tapani

    AU - Tu, X

    AU - Liow, T. Y.

    AU - Hiltunen, Marianne

    AU - Tervonen, Ari

    AU - Lo, G. Q.

    AU - Honkanen, Seppo

    N1 - Project code: 72700

    PY - 2011

    Y1 - 2011

    N2 - We demonstrate low-loss silicon slot waveguides patterned with 248 nm deep-UV lithography and filled with atomic layer deposited aluminum oxide. Propagation losses less than 5 dB/cm are achieved with the waveguides. The devices are fabricated using low-temperature CMOS compatible processes. We also demonstrate simple, compact and efficient strip-to-slot waveguide couplers. With a coupler as short as 10 µm, coupling loss is less than 0.15 dB. The low-index and low-nonlinearity filling material allows nonlinearities nearly two orders of magnitude smaller than in silicon waveguides. Therefore, these waveguides are a good candidate for linear photonic devices on the silicon platform, and for distortion-free signal transmission channels between different parts of a silicon all-optical chip. The low-nonlinearity slot waveguides and robust couplers also facilitate a 50-fold local change of the waveguide nonlinearity within the chip by a simple mask design.

    AB - We demonstrate low-loss silicon slot waveguides patterned with 248 nm deep-UV lithography and filled with atomic layer deposited aluminum oxide. Propagation losses less than 5 dB/cm are achieved with the waveguides. The devices are fabricated using low-temperature CMOS compatible processes. We also demonstrate simple, compact and efficient strip-to-slot waveguide couplers. With a coupler as short as 10 µm, coupling loss is less than 0.15 dB. The low-index and low-nonlinearity filling material allows nonlinearities nearly two orders of magnitude smaller than in silicon waveguides. Therefore, these waveguides are a good candidate for linear photonic devices on the silicon platform, and for distortion-free signal transmission channels between different parts of a silicon all-optical chip. The low-nonlinearity slot waveguides and robust couplers also facilitate a 50-fold local change of the waveguide nonlinearity within the chip by a simple mask design.

    KW - Integrated optics materials

    KW - Nonlinear

    KW - Nanostructure fabrication

    KW - Waveguides

    KW - Guided wave applications

    U2 - 10.1364/OE.19.026275

    DO - 10.1364/OE.19.026275

    M3 - Article

    VL - 19

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    EP - 26282

    JO - Optics Express

    JF - Optics Express

    SN - 1094-4087

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    ER -