Low-temperature atomic layer deposition of SiO2/Al2O3 multilayer structures constructed on self-standing films of cellulose nanofibrils

Matti Putkonen, Perttu Sippola, Laura Svärd, Timo Sajavaara, Jari Vartiainen, Iain Buchanan, Ulla Forsström, Pekka Simell, Tekla Tammelin (Corresponding Author)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In this paper, we have optimized a low-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) of SiO2 using AP-LTO® 330 and ozone (O3) as precursors, and demonstrated its suitability to surface-modify temperature-sensitive bio-based films of cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs). The lowest temperature for the thermal ALD process was 80°C when the silicon precursor residence time was increased by the stop-flow mode. The SiO2 film deposition rate was dependent on the temperature varying within 1.5-2.2 Å cycle-1 in the temperature range of 80-350°C, respectively. The low-temperature SiO2 process that resulted was combined with the conventional trimethyl aluminium + H2O process in order to prepare thin multilayer nanolaminates on self-standing CNF films. One to six stacks of SiO2/Al2O3 were deposited on the CNF films, with individual layer thicknesses of 3.7 nm and 2.6 nm, respectively, combined with a 5 nm protective SiO2 layer as the top layer. The performance of the multilayer hybrid nanolaminate structures was evaluated with respect to the oxygen and water vapour transmission rates. Six stacks of SiO2/Al2O with a total thickness of approximately 35 nm efficiently prevented oxygen and water molecules from interacting with the CNF film. The oxygen transmission rates analysed at 80% RH decreased from the value for plain CNF film of 130 ml m-2 d-1 to 0.15 ml m-2 d-1, whereas the water transmission rates lowered from 630 ± 50 g m-2 d-1 down to 90 ± 40 g m-2 d-1.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'New horizons for cellulose nanotechnology'.

Original languageEnglish
Article number20170037
JournalPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
Volume376
Issue number2112
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 13 Feb 2018
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Atomic layer deposition
Cellulose
SiO2
atomic layer epitaxy
cellulose
Cellulose films
laminates
Multilayer
Multilayers
Oxygen
Precursor
Temperature
oxygen
Water
Residence Time
hybrid structures
Ozone
Water Vapor
Nanotechnology
nanotechnology

Keywords

  • Cellulose nanofibrils
  • Diffusion barrier
  • Hybrid multilayers
  • Low-temperature atomic layer deposition
  • SiO
  • Water sensitivity

Cite this

@article{dde83f942b79441c8ec924edcf3ad863,
title = "Low-temperature atomic layer deposition of SiO2/Al2O3 multilayer structures constructed on self-standing films of cellulose nanofibrils",
abstract = "In this paper, we have optimized a low-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) of SiO2 using AP-LTO{\circledR} 330 and ozone (O3) as precursors, and demonstrated its suitability to surface-modify temperature-sensitive bio-based films of cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs). The lowest temperature for the thermal ALD process was 80°C when the silicon precursor residence time was increased by the stop-flow mode. The SiO2 film deposition rate was dependent on the temperature varying within 1.5-2.2 {\AA} cycle-1 in the temperature range of 80-350°C, respectively. The low-temperature SiO2 process that resulted was combined with the conventional trimethyl aluminium + H2O process in order to prepare thin multilayer nanolaminates on self-standing CNF films. One to six stacks of SiO2/Al2O3 were deposited on the CNF films, with individual layer thicknesses of 3.7 nm and 2.6 nm, respectively, combined with a 5 nm protective SiO2 layer as the top layer. The performance of the multilayer hybrid nanolaminate structures was evaluated with respect to the oxygen and water vapour transmission rates. Six stacks of SiO2/Al2O with a total thickness of approximately 35 nm efficiently prevented oxygen and water molecules from interacting with the CNF film. The oxygen transmission rates analysed at 80{\%} RH decreased from the value for plain CNF film of 130 ml m-2 d-1 to 0.15 ml m-2 d-1, whereas the water transmission rates lowered from 630 ± 50 g m-2 d-1 down to 90 ± 40 g m-2 d-1.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'New horizons for cellulose nanotechnology'.",
keywords = "Cellulose nanofibrils, Diffusion barrier, Hybrid multilayers, Low-temperature atomic layer deposition, SiO, Water sensitivity",
author = "Matti Putkonen and Perttu Sippola and Laura Sv{\"a}rd and Timo Sajavaara and Jari Vartiainen and Iain Buchanan and Ulla Forsstr{\"o}m and Pekka Simell and Tekla Tammelin",
year = "2018",
month = "2",
day = "13",
doi = "10.1098/rsta.2017.0037",
language = "English",
volume = "376",
journal = "Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences",
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Low-temperature atomic layer deposition of SiO2/Al2O3 multilayer structures constructed on self-standing films of cellulose nanofibrils. / Putkonen, Matti; Sippola, Perttu; Svärd, Laura; Sajavaara, Timo; Vartiainen, Jari; Buchanan, Iain; Forsström, Ulla; Simell, Pekka; Tammelin, Tekla (Corresponding Author).

In: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 376, No. 2112, 20170037, 13.02.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Low-temperature atomic layer deposition of SiO2/Al2O3 multilayer structures constructed on self-standing films of cellulose nanofibrils

AU - Putkonen, Matti

AU - Sippola, Perttu

AU - Svärd, Laura

AU - Sajavaara, Timo

AU - Vartiainen, Jari

AU - Buchanan, Iain

AU - Forsström, Ulla

AU - Simell, Pekka

AU - Tammelin, Tekla

PY - 2018/2/13

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N2 - In this paper, we have optimized a low-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) of SiO2 using AP-LTO® 330 and ozone (O3) as precursors, and demonstrated its suitability to surface-modify temperature-sensitive bio-based films of cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs). The lowest temperature for the thermal ALD process was 80°C when the silicon precursor residence time was increased by the stop-flow mode. The SiO2 film deposition rate was dependent on the temperature varying within 1.5-2.2 Å cycle-1 in the temperature range of 80-350°C, respectively. The low-temperature SiO2 process that resulted was combined with the conventional trimethyl aluminium + H2O process in order to prepare thin multilayer nanolaminates on self-standing CNF films. One to six stacks of SiO2/Al2O3 were deposited on the CNF films, with individual layer thicknesses of 3.7 nm and 2.6 nm, respectively, combined with a 5 nm protective SiO2 layer as the top layer. The performance of the multilayer hybrid nanolaminate structures was evaluated with respect to the oxygen and water vapour transmission rates. Six stacks of SiO2/Al2O with a total thickness of approximately 35 nm efficiently prevented oxygen and water molecules from interacting with the CNF film. The oxygen transmission rates analysed at 80% RH decreased from the value for plain CNF film of 130 ml m-2 d-1 to 0.15 ml m-2 d-1, whereas the water transmission rates lowered from 630 ± 50 g m-2 d-1 down to 90 ± 40 g m-2 d-1.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'New horizons for cellulose nanotechnology'.

AB - In this paper, we have optimized a low-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) of SiO2 using AP-LTO® 330 and ozone (O3) as precursors, and demonstrated its suitability to surface-modify temperature-sensitive bio-based films of cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs). The lowest temperature for the thermal ALD process was 80°C when the silicon precursor residence time was increased by the stop-flow mode. The SiO2 film deposition rate was dependent on the temperature varying within 1.5-2.2 Å cycle-1 in the temperature range of 80-350°C, respectively. The low-temperature SiO2 process that resulted was combined with the conventional trimethyl aluminium + H2O process in order to prepare thin multilayer nanolaminates on self-standing CNF films. One to six stacks of SiO2/Al2O3 were deposited on the CNF films, with individual layer thicknesses of 3.7 nm and 2.6 nm, respectively, combined with a 5 nm protective SiO2 layer as the top layer. The performance of the multilayer hybrid nanolaminate structures was evaluated with respect to the oxygen and water vapour transmission rates. Six stacks of SiO2/Al2O with a total thickness of approximately 35 nm efficiently prevented oxygen and water molecules from interacting with the CNF film. The oxygen transmission rates analysed at 80% RH decreased from the value for plain CNF film of 130 ml m-2 d-1 to 0.15 ml m-2 d-1, whereas the water transmission rates lowered from 630 ± 50 g m-2 d-1 down to 90 ± 40 g m-2 d-1.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'New horizons for cellulose nanotechnology'.

KW - Cellulose nanofibrils

KW - Diffusion barrier

KW - Hybrid multilayers

KW - Low-temperature atomic layer deposition

KW - SiO

KW - Water sensitivity

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U2 - 10.1098/rsta.2017.0037

DO - 10.1098/rsta.2017.0037

M3 - Article

VL - 376

JO - Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences

JF - Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences

SN - 1364-503X

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M1 - 20170037

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