Managing cascade transformers equipped with on-load tap changers in bidirectional power flow environment

Farzad Azimzadeh Moghaddam, Anna Kulmala, Sami Repo

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Existing voltage control schemes of cascade on-load tap changers (OLTCs) have been developed considering unidirectional power flow. However, in recent years, integration of distributed generation such as solar and wind power to the grid has created possibility for bidirectional power flow resulting in inefficiency of previous voltage control methods of cascade OLTCs. In this paper, an effective method for managing cascade OLTCs in bidirectional power flow environment is presented. Tracking the active and reactive power changes in both MV and LV networks, the developed method is able to detect the cause of voltage variation i.e. MV or LV network. Accordingly, it enables the system operator to order tap actions at accurate voltage level which decreases unnecessary tap actions and improves the voltage quality at costumer points. The proposed voltage control method is tested in different network scenarios.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2015 IEEE Eindhoven PowerTech, PowerTech 2015
PublisherIEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers
ISBN (Electronic)978-1-4799-7693-5, 978-1-4799-7692-8
Publication statusPublished - 31 Aug 2015
MoE publication typeA4 Article in a conference publication
EventIEEE Eindhoven PowerTech, PowerTech 2015 - Eindhoven, Netherlands
Duration: 29 Jun 20152 Jul 2015


ConferenceIEEE Eindhoven PowerTech, PowerTech 2015


  • bidirectional power flow
  • cascade on-load tap changers
  • origin of voltage violation
  • voltage control


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