Many faces of mobile contactless ticketing

Erkki Siira, Jonathan Ouoba

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review


    Smart cities must offer innovative mobile services in the areas of transport and culture. In this context, the ticketing services, which are key elements in the domains of transport and culture, have to be provided. In this respect, the impact of technological developments, including those related to NFC (Near Field Communication), which is a short range wireless technology, lead to the deployment of mobile contactless solutions. We highlight, in the paper, seven models to manage all or part of mobile contactless ticketing systems within smart cities. This study is based on the research conducted in the contactless ticketing area and on the return of experience gained within a European project. The models, which give a realistic picture of the various faces of such systems, are: the operator-centric model, the manufacturer-centric model, the identification-based model, the peer-to-peer model, the smart card-based model, the leeched smart card-based model, and the inverse reader model. We detail the characteristics of each model and present use cases. Furthermore, we present tracks indicating that these models may coexist within smart cities and we derive some perspectives on the evolution of these ticketing services by explaining that two models could be dominant.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationSMART 2013: The Second International Conference on Smart Systems, Devices and Technologies
    PublisherInternational Academy, Research, and Industry Association IARIA
    ISBN (Print)978-1-61208-282-0
    Publication statusPublished - 2013
    MoE publication typeA4 Article in a conference publication
    EventThe Second International Conference on Smart Systems, Devices and Technologies, SMART 2013 - Rome , Italy
    Duration: 23 Jun 201328 Jun 2013


    ConferenceThe Second International Conference on Smart Systems, Devices and Technologies, SMART 2013
    Abbreviated titleSMARt 2013


    • mobile services
    • mobile ticketing
    • contactless
    • NFC


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