Mass, energy and material balances of SRF production process. Part 1: SRF produced from commercial and industrial waste

Muhammed Nasrullah (Corresponding Author), Pasi Vainikka, J Hannula, M Hurme, Janne Kärki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This paper presents the mass, energy and material balances of a solid recovered fuel (SRF) production process. The SRF is produced from commercial and industrial waste (C&IW) through mechanical treatment (MT). In this work various streams of material produced in SRF production process are analyzed for their proximate and ultimate analysis. Based on this analysis and composition of process streams their mass, energy and material balances are established for SRF production process. Here mass balance describes the overall mass flow of input waste material in the various output streams, whereas material balance describes the mass flow of components of input waste stream (such as paper and cardboard, wood, plastic (soft), plastic (hard), textile and rubber) in the various output streams of SRF production process. A commercial scale experimental campaign was conducted on an MT waste sorting plant to produce SRF from C&IW. All the process streams (input and output) produced in this MT plant were sampled and treated according to the CEN standard methods for SRF: EN 15442 and EN 15443. The results from the mass balance of SRF production process showed that of the total input C&IW material to MT waste sorting plant, 62% was recovered in the form of SRF, 4% as ferrous metal, 1% as non-ferrous metal and 21% was sorted out as reject material, 11.6% as fine fraction, and 0.4% as heavy fraction. The energy flow balance in various process streams of this SRF production process showed that of the total input energy content of C&IW to MT plant, 75% energy was recovered in the form of SRF, 20% belonged to the reject material stream and rest 5% belonged with the streams of fine fraction and heavy fraction. In the material balances, mass fractions of plastic (soft), plastic (hard), paper and cardboard and wood recovered in the SRF stream were 88%, 70%, 72% and 60% respectively of their input masses to MT plant. A high mass fraction of plastic (PVC), rubber material and non-combustibles (such as stone/rock and glass particles), was found in the reject material stream
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1398-1407
Number of pages9
JournalWaste Management
Volume34
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

industrial waste
energy
plastic
mass balance
rubber
material
energy flow
glass

Keywords

  • Commercial and industrial waste
  • input and output streams
  • material balances
  • mechanical treatment
  • solid recovered fuel

Cite this

Nasrullah, Muhammed ; Vainikka, Pasi ; Hannula, J ; Hurme, M ; Kärki, Janne. / Mass, energy and material balances of SRF production process. Part 1: SRF produced from commercial and industrial waste. In: Waste Management. 2014 ; Vol. 34, No. 8. pp. 1398-1407.
@article{fa42ec30d41b4a87ab46513b586159bc,
title = "Mass, energy and material balances of SRF production process.: Part 1: SRF produced from commercial and industrial waste",
abstract = "This paper presents the mass, energy and material balances of a solid recovered fuel (SRF) production process. The SRF is produced from commercial and industrial waste (C&IW) through mechanical treatment (MT). In this work various streams of material produced in SRF production process are analyzed for their proximate and ultimate analysis. Based on this analysis and composition of process streams their mass, energy and material balances are established for SRF production process. Here mass balance describes the overall mass flow of input waste material in the various output streams, whereas material balance describes the mass flow of components of input waste stream (such as paper and cardboard, wood, plastic (soft), plastic (hard), textile and rubber) in the various output streams of SRF production process. A commercial scale experimental campaign was conducted on an MT waste sorting plant to produce SRF from C&IW. All the process streams (input and output) produced in this MT plant were sampled and treated according to the CEN standard methods for SRF: EN 15442 and EN 15443. The results from the mass balance of SRF production process showed that of the total input C&IW material to MT waste sorting plant, 62{\%} was recovered in the form of SRF, 4{\%} as ferrous metal, 1{\%} as non-ferrous metal and 21{\%} was sorted out as reject material, 11.6{\%} as fine fraction, and 0.4{\%} as heavy fraction. The energy flow balance in various process streams of this SRF production process showed that of the total input energy content of C&IW to MT plant, 75{\%} energy was recovered in the form of SRF, 20{\%} belonged to the reject material stream and rest 5{\%} belonged with the streams of fine fraction and heavy fraction. In the material balances, mass fractions of plastic (soft), plastic (hard), paper and cardboard and wood recovered in the SRF stream were 88{\%}, 70{\%}, 72{\%} and 60{\%} respectively of their input masses to MT plant. A high mass fraction of plastic (PVC), rubber material and non-combustibles (such as stone/rock and glass particles), was found in the reject material stream",
keywords = "Commercial and industrial waste, input and output streams, material balances, mechanical treatment, solid recovered fuel",
author = "Muhammed Nasrullah and Pasi Vainikka and J Hannula and M Hurme and Janne K{\"a}rki",
year = "2014",
doi = "10.1016/j.wasman.2014.03.011",
language = "English",
volume = "34",
pages = "1398--1407",
journal = "Waste Management",
issn = "0956-053X",
publisher = "Elsevier",
number = "8",

}

Mass, energy and material balances of SRF production process. Part 1: SRF produced from commercial and industrial waste. / Nasrullah, Muhammed (Corresponding Author); Vainikka, Pasi; Hannula, J; Hurme, M; Kärki, Janne.

In: Waste Management, Vol. 34, No. 8, 2014, p. 1398-1407.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Mass, energy and material balances of SRF production process.

T2 - Part 1: SRF produced from commercial and industrial waste

AU - Nasrullah, Muhammed

AU - Vainikka, Pasi

AU - Hannula, J

AU - Hurme, M

AU - Kärki, Janne

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - This paper presents the mass, energy and material balances of a solid recovered fuel (SRF) production process. The SRF is produced from commercial and industrial waste (C&IW) through mechanical treatment (MT). In this work various streams of material produced in SRF production process are analyzed for their proximate and ultimate analysis. Based on this analysis and composition of process streams their mass, energy and material balances are established for SRF production process. Here mass balance describes the overall mass flow of input waste material in the various output streams, whereas material balance describes the mass flow of components of input waste stream (such as paper and cardboard, wood, plastic (soft), plastic (hard), textile and rubber) in the various output streams of SRF production process. A commercial scale experimental campaign was conducted on an MT waste sorting plant to produce SRF from C&IW. All the process streams (input and output) produced in this MT plant were sampled and treated according to the CEN standard methods for SRF: EN 15442 and EN 15443. The results from the mass balance of SRF production process showed that of the total input C&IW material to MT waste sorting plant, 62% was recovered in the form of SRF, 4% as ferrous metal, 1% as non-ferrous metal and 21% was sorted out as reject material, 11.6% as fine fraction, and 0.4% as heavy fraction. The energy flow balance in various process streams of this SRF production process showed that of the total input energy content of C&IW to MT plant, 75% energy was recovered in the form of SRF, 20% belonged to the reject material stream and rest 5% belonged with the streams of fine fraction and heavy fraction. In the material balances, mass fractions of plastic (soft), plastic (hard), paper and cardboard and wood recovered in the SRF stream were 88%, 70%, 72% and 60% respectively of their input masses to MT plant. A high mass fraction of plastic (PVC), rubber material and non-combustibles (such as stone/rock and glass particles), was found in the reject material stream

AB - This paper presents the mass, energy and material balances of a solid recovered fuel (SRF) production process. The SRF is produced from commercial and industrial waste (C&IW) through mechanical treatment (MT). In this work various streams of material produced in SRF production process are analyzed for their proximate and ultimate analysis. Based on this analysis and composition of process streams their mass, energy and material balances are established for SRF production process. Here mass balance describes the overall mass flow of input waste material in the various output streams, whereas material balance describes the mass flow of components of input waste stream (such as paper and cardboard, wood, plastic (soft), plastic (hard), textile and rubber) in the various output streams of SRF production process. A commercial scale experimental campaign was conducted on an MT waste sorting plant to produce SRF from C&IW. All the process streams (input and output) produced in this MT plant were sampled and treated according to the CEN standard methods for SRF: EN 15442 and EN 15443. The results from the mass balance of SRF production process showed that of the total input C&IW material to MT waste sorting plant, 62% was recovered in the form of SRF, 4% as ferrous metal, 1% as non-ferrous metal and 21% was sorted out as reject material, 11.6% as fine fraction, and 0.4% as heavy fraction. The energy flow balance in various process streams of this SRF production process showed that of the total input energy content of C&IW to MT plant, 75% energy was recovered in the form of SRF, 20% belonged to the reject material stream and rest 5% belonged with the streams of fine fraction and heavy fraction. In the material balances, mass fractions of plastic (soft), plastic (hard), paper and cardboard and wood recovered in the SRF stream were 88%, 70%, 72% and 60% respectively of their input masses to MT plant. A high mass fraction of plastic (PVC), rubber material and non-combustibles (such as stone/rock and glass particles), was found in the reject material stream

KW - Commercial and industrial waste

KW - input and output streams

KW - material balances

KW - mechanical treatment

KW - solid recovered fuel

U2 - 10.1016/j.wasman.2014.03.011

DO - 10.1016/j.wasman.2014.03.011

M3 - Article

VL - 34

SP - 1398

EP - 1407

JO - Waste Management

JF - Waste Management

SN - 0956-053X

IS - 8

ER -