Material erosion and migration in tokamaks

R.A. Pitts, J.P. Coad, D.P. Coster, G. Federici, W. Fundamenski, J. Horacek, K. Krieger, A. Kukushkin, Jari Likonen, G.F. Matthews, M. Rubel, J.D. Strachan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

82 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The issue of first wall and divertor target lifetime represents one of the greatest challenges facing the successful demonstration of integrated tokamak burning plasma operation, even in the case of the planned next step device, ITER, which will run at a relatively low duty cycle in comparison to future fusion power plants. Material erosion by continuous or transient plasma ion and neutral impact, the susbsequent transport of the released impurities through and by the plasma and their deposition and/or eventual re-erosion constitute the process of migration. Its importance is now recognized by a concerted research effort throughout the international tokamak community, comprising a wide variety of devices with differing plasma configurations, sizes and plasma-facing component material. No single device, however, operates with the first wall material mix currently envisaged for ITER, and all are far from the ITER energy throughput and divertor particle fluxes and fluences. This paper aims to review the basic components of material erosion and migration in tokamaks, illustrating each by way of examples from current research and attempting to place them in the context of the next step device. Plans for testing an ITER-like first wall material mix on the JET tokamak will also be briefly outlined.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)B303 - B322
Number of pages20
JournalPlasma Physics and Controlled Fusion
Volume47
Issue number12B
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2005
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

erosion
Erosion
Plasmas
Facings
ion impact
power plants
flux (rate)
Power plants
fluence
Demonstrations
Fusion reactions
fusion
Throughput
Impurities
Fluxes
life (durability)
impurities
cycles
Ions
Testing

Keywords

  • JET
  • plasma
  • fusion energy
  • fusion reactors
  • tokamak
  • ITER
  • divertor
  • divertor material
  • divertor tiles
  • first wall
  • plasma-wall interactions

Cite this

Pitts, R. A., Coad, J. P., Coster, D. P., Federici, G., Fundamenski, W., Horacek, J., ... Strachan, J. D. (2005). Material erosion and migration in tokamaks. Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, 47(12B), B303 - B322. https://doi.org/10.1088/0741-3335/47/12B/S22
Pitts, R.A. ; Coad, J.P. ; Coster, D.P. ; Federici, G. ; Fundamenski, W. ; Horacek, J. ; Krieger, K. ; Kukushkin, A. ; Likonen, Jari ; Matthews, G.F. ; Rubel, M. ; Strachan, J.D. / Material erosion and migration in tokamaks. In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion. 2005 ; Vol. 47, No. 12B. pp. B303 - B322.
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Pitts, RA, Coad, JP, Coster, DP, Federici, G, Fundamenski, W, Horacek, J, Krieger, K, Kukushkin, A, Likonen, J, Matthews, GF, Rubel, M & Strachan, JD 2005, 'Material erosion and migration in tokamaks', Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, vol. 47, no. 12B, pp. B303 - B322. https://doi.org/10.1088/0741-3335/47/12B/S22

Material erosion and migration in tokamaks. / Pitts, R.A.; Coad, J.P.; Coster, D.P.; Federici, G.; Fundamenski, W.; Horacek, J.; Krieger, K.; Kukushkin, A.; Likonen, Jari; Matthews, G.F.; Rubel, M.; Strachan, J.D.

In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, Vol. 47, No. 12B, 2005, p. B303 - B322.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Material erosion and migration in tokamaks

AU - Pitts, R.A.

AU - Coad, J.P.

AU - Coster, D.P.

AU - Federici, G.

AU - Fundamenski, W.

AU - Horacek, J.

AU - Krieger, K.

AU - Kukushkin, A.

AU - Likonen, Jari

AU - Matthews, G.F.

AU - Rubel, M.

AU - Strachan, J.D.

PY - 2005

Y1 - 2005

N2 - The issue of first wall and divertor target lifetime represents one of the greatest challenges facing the successful demonstration of integrated tokamak burning plasma operation, even in the case of the planned next step device, ITER, which will run at a relatively low duty cycle in comparison to future fusion power plants. Material erosion by continuous or transient plasma ion and neutral impact, the susbsequent transport of the released impurities through and by the plasma and their deposition and/or eventual re-erosion constitute the process of migration. Its importance is now recognized by a concerted research effort throughout the international tokamak community, comprising a wide variety of devices with differing plasma configurations, sizes and plasma-facing component material. No single device, however, operates with the first wall material mix currently envisaged for ITER, and all are far from the ITER energy throughput and divertor particle fluxes and fluences. This paper aims to review the basic components of material erosion and migration in tokamaks, illustrating each by way of examples from current research and attempting to place them in the context of the next step device. Plans for testing an ITER-like first wall material mix on the JET tokamak will also be briefly outlined.

AB - The issue of first wall and divertor target lifetime represents one of the greatest challenges facing the successful demonstration of integrated tokamak burning plasma operation, even in the case of the planned next step device, ITER, which will run at a relatively low duty cycle in comparison to future fusion power plants. Material erosion by continuous or transient plasma ion and neutral impact, the susbsequent transport of the released impurities through and by the plasma and their deposition and/or eventual re-erosion constitute the process of migration. Its importance is now recognized by a concerted research effort throughout the international tokamak community, comprising a wide variety of devices with differing plasma configurations, sizes and plasma-facing component material. No single device, however, operates with the first wall material mix currently envisaged for ITER, and all are far from the ITER energy throughput and divertor particle fluxes and fluences. This paper aims to review the basic components of material erosion and migration in tokamaks, illustrating each by way of examples from current research and attempting to place them in the context of the next step device. Plans for testing an ITER-like first wall material mix on the JET tokamak will also be briefly outlined.

KW - JET

KW - plasma

KW - fusion energy

KW - fusion reactors

KW - tokamak

KW - ITER

KW - divertor

KW - divertor material

KW - divertor tiles

KW - first wall

KW - plasma-wall interactions

U2 - 10.1088/0741-3335/47/12B/S22

DO - 10.1088/0741-3335/47/12B/S22

M3 - Article

VL - 47

SP - B303 - B322

JO - Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion

JF - Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion

SN - 0741-3335

IS - 12B

ER -

Pitts RA, Coad JP, Coster DP, Federici G, Fundamenski W, Horacek J et al. Material erosion and migration in tokamaks. Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion. 2005;47(12B):B303 - B322. https://doi.org/10.1088/0741-3335/47/12B/S22