Material erosion and migration in tokamaks

R.A. Pitts, J.P. Coad, D.P. Coster, G. Federici, W. Fundamenski, J. Horacek, K. Krieger, A. Kukushkin, Jari Likonen, G.F. Matthews, M. Rubel, J.D. Strachan

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    102 Citations (Scopus)


    The issue of first wall and divertor target lifetime represents one of the greatest challenges facing the successful demonstration of integrated tokamak burning plasma operation, even in the case of the planned next step device, ITER, which will run at a relatively low duty cycle in comparison to future fusion power plants. Material erosion by continuous or transient plasma ion and neutral impact, the susbsequent transport of the released impurities through and by the plasma and their deposition and/or eventual re-erosion constitute the process of migration. Its importance is now recognized by a concerted research effort throughout the international tokamak community, comprising a wide variety of devices with differing plasma configurations, sizes and plasma-facing component material. No single device, however, operates with the first wall material mix currently envisaged for ITER, and all are far from the ITER energy throughput and divertor particle fluxes and fluences. This paper aims to review the basic components of material erosion and migration in tokamaks, illustrating each by way of examples from current research and attempting to place them in the context of the next step device. Plans for testing an ITER-like first wall material mix on the JET tokamak will also be briefly outlined.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)B303 - B322
    Number of pages20
    JournalPlasma Physics and Controlled Fusion
    Issue number12B
    Publication statusPublished - 2005
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


    • JET
    • plasma
    • fusion energy
    • fusion reactors
    • tokamak
    • ITER
    • divertor
    • divertor material
    • divertor tiles
    • first wall
    • plasma-wall interactions


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