Material erosion and migration in tokamaks

R.A. Pitts, J.P. Coad, D.P. Coster, G. Federici, W. Fundamenski, J. Horacek, K. Krieger, A. Kukushkin, Jari Likonen, G.F. Matthews, M. Rubel, J.D. Strachan

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    82 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    The issue of first wall and divertor target lifetime represents one of the greatest challenges facing the successful demonstration of integrated tokamak burning plasma operation, even in the case of the planned next step device, ITER, which will run at a relatively low duty cycle in comparison to future fusion power plants. Material erosion by continuous or transient plasma ion and neutral impact, the susbsequent transport of the released impurities through and by the plasma and their deposition and/or eventual re-erosion constitute the process of migration. Its importance is now recognized by a concerted research effort throughout the international tokamak community, comprising a wide variety of devices with differing plasma configurations, sizes and plasma-facing component material. No single device, however, operates with the first wall material mix currently envisaged for ITER, and all are far from the ITER energy throughput and divertor particle fluxes and fluences. This paper aims to review the basic components of material erosion and migration in tokamaks, illustrating each by way of examples from current research and attempting to place them in the context of the next step device. Plans for testing an ITER-like first wall material mix on the JET tokamak will also be briefly outlined.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)B303 - B322
    Number of pages20
    JournalPlasma Physics and Controlled Fusion
    Volume47
    Issue number12B
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2005
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Fingerprint

    erosion
    Erosion
    Plasmas
    Facings
    ion impact
    power plants
    flux (rate)
    Power plants
    fluence
    Demonstrations
    Fusion reactions
    fusion
    Throughput
    Impurities
    Fluxes
    life (durability)
    impurities
    cycles
    Ions
    Testing

    Keywords

    • JET
    • plasma
    • fusion energy
    • fusion reactors
    • tokamak
    • ITER
    • divertor
    • divertor material
    • divertor tiles
    • first wall
    • plasma-wall interactions

    Cite this

    Pitts, R. A., Coad, J. P., Coster, D. P., Federici, G., Fundamenski, W., Horacek, J., ... Strachan, J. D. (2005). Material erosion and migration in tokamaks. Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, 47(12B), B303 - B322. https://doi.org/10.1088/0741-3335/47/12B/S22
    Pitts, R.A. ; Coad, J.P. ; Coster, D.P. ; Federici, G. ; Fundamenski, W. ; Horacek, J. ; Krieger, K. ; Kukushkin, A. ; Likonen, Jari ; Matthews, G.F. ; Rubel, M. ; Strachan, J.D. / Material erosion and migration in tokamaks. In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion. 2005 ; Vol. 47, No. 12B. pp. B303 - B322.
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    abstract = "The issue of first wall and divertor target lifetime represents one of the greatest challenges facing the successful demonstration of integrated tokamak burning plasma operation, even in the case of the planned next step device, ITER, which will run at a relatively low duty cycle in comparison to future fusion power plants. Material erosion by continuous or transient plasma ion and neutral impact, the susbsequent transport of the released impurities through and by the plasma and their deposition and/or eventual re-erosion constitute the process of migration. Its importance is now recognized by a concerted research effort throughout the international tokamak community, comprising a wide variety of devices with differing plasma configurations, sizes and plasma-facing component material. No single device, however, operates with the first wall material mix currently envisaged for ITER, and all are far from the ITER energy throughput and divertor particle fluxes and fluences. This paper aims to review the basic components of material erosion and migration in tokamaks, illustrating each by way of examples from current research and attempting to place them in the context of the next step device. Plans for testing an ITER-like first wall material mix on the JET tokamak will also be briefly outlined.",
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    author = "R.A. Pitts and J.P. Coad and D.P. Coster and G. Federici and W. Fundamenski and J. Horacek and K. Krieger and A. Kukushkin and Jari Likonen and G.F. Matthews and M. Rubel and J.D. Strachan",
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    Pitts, RA, Coad, JP, Coster, DP, Federici, G, Fundamenski, W, Horacek, J, Krieger, K, Kukushkin, A, Likonen, J, Matthews, GF, Rubel, M & Strachan, JD 2005, 'Material erosion and migration in tokamaks', Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, vol. 47, no. 12B, pp. B303 - B322. https://doi.org/10.1088/0741-3335/47/12B/S22

    Material erosion and migration in tokamaks. / Pitts, R.A.; Coad, J.P.; Coster, D.P.; Federici, G.; Fundamenski, W.; Horacek, J.; Krieger, K.; Kukushkin, A.; Likonen, Jari; Matthews, G.F.; Rubel, M.; Strachan, J.D.

    In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, Vol. 47, No. 12B, 2005, p. B303 - B322.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Material erosion and migration in tokamaks

    AU - Pitts, R.A.

    AU - Coad, J.P.

    AU - Coster, D.P.

    AU - Federici, G.

    AU - Fundamenski, W.

    AU - Horacek, J.

    AU - Krieger, K.

    AU - Kukushkin, A.

    AU - Likonen, Jari

    AU - Matthews, G.F.

    AU - Rubel, M.

    AU - Strachan, J.D.

    PY - 2005

    Y1 - 2005

    N2 - The issue of first wall and divertor target lifetime represents one of the greatest challenges facing the successful demonstration of integrated tokamak burning plasma operation, even in the case of the planned next step device, ITER, which will run at a relatively low duty cycle in comparison to future fusion power plants. Material erosion by continuous or transient plasma ion and neutral impact, the susbsequent transport of the released impurities through and by the plasma and their deposition and/or eventual re-erosion constitute the process of migration. Its importance is now recognized by a concerted research effort throughout the international tokamak community, comprising a wide variety of devices with differing plasma configurations, sizes and plasma-facing component material. No single device, however, operates with the first wall material mix currently envisaged for ITER, and all are far from the ITER energy throughput and divertor particle fluxes and fluences. This paper aims to review the basic components of material erosion and migration in tokamaks, illustrating each by way of examples from current research and attempting to place them in the context of the next step device. Plans for testing an ITER-like first wall material mix on the JET tokamak will also be briefly outlined.

    AB - The issue of first wall and divertor target lifetime represents one of the greatest challenges facing the successful demonstration of integrated tokamak burning plasma operation, even in the case of the planned next step device, ITER, which will run at a relatively low duty cycle in comparison to future fusion power plants. Material erosion by continuous or transient plasma ion and neutral impact, the susbsequent transport of the released impurities through and by the plasma and their deposition and/or eventual re-erosion constitute the process of migration. Its importance is now recognized by a concerted research effort throughout the international tokamak community, comprising a wide variety of devices with differing plasma configurations, sizes and plasma-facing component material. No single device, however, operates with the first wall material mix currently envisaged for ITER, and all are far from the ITER energy throughput and divertor particle fluxes and fluences. This paper aims to review the basic components of material erosion and migration in tokamaks, illustrating each by way of examples from current research and attempting to place them in the context of the next step device. Plans for testing an ITER-like first wall material mix on the JET tokamak will also be briefly outlined.

    KW - JET

    KW - plasma

    KW - fusion energy

    KW - fusion reactors

    KW - tokamak

    KW - ITER

    KW - divertor

    KW - divertor material

    KW - divertor tiles

    KW - first wall

    KW - plasma-wall interactions

    U2 - 10.1088/0741-3335/47/12B/S22

    DO - 10.1088/0741-3335/47/12B/S22

    M3 - Article

    VL - 47

    SP - B303 - B322

    JO - Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion

    JF - Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion

    SN - 0741-3335

    IS - 12B

    ER -

    Pitts RA, Coad JP, Coster DP, Federici G, Fundamenski W, Horacek J et al. Material erosion and migration in tokamaks. Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion. 2005;47(12B):B303 - B322. https://doi.org/10.1088/0741-3335/47/12B/S22