Measurement of the dielectric properties of paper

S. Simula, Timo Varpula, S. Ikäläinen, Heikki Seppä, Aleksandr Paukku, K. Niskanen

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    35 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Unlike de resistivities of non-impact printing papers that are routinely measured, their dielectric properties are seldom considered. The do resistivity alone does not predict the behavior of paper very well when paper passes through a transfer nip. If the electric field changes with time, all anisotropic frequency-dependent electrical properties of paper should be considered. We present a new method for the measurement of the electrical properties of paper in the principal directions of the sheet. In the frequency range of 20 Hz-1 MHz, the permittivity epsilon' and dielectric loss factor epsilon" or electrical conductivity cr can be measured. Measurements on coated and uncoated commercial papers showed some interesting characteristics. In spite of the low moisture content of coated paper, its dielectric constant increased with increasing relative humidity at the same rate as in copy paper. The dielectric constant of copy paper measured in the machine direction (MD) was much higher than what was measured in the thickness direction (ZD). For coated paper the difference between MD and ZD dielectric constants was small. For both types of paper the dielectric loss was much greater in machine direction than in the thickness direction. Dielectric loss increased with increasing relative humidity more in machine direction than in z-direction. Differences in the MD and ZD dielectric constant were attributed to the anisotropy of paper.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)472-477
    Number of pages6
    JournalJournal of Imaging Science and Technology
    Volume43
    Issue number5
    Publication statusPublished - 1999
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Fingerprint

    Dielectric properties
    dielectric properties
    Permittivity
    Dielectric losses
    permittivity
    Atmospheric humidity
    dielectric loss
    Electric properties
    electrical resistivity
    humidity
    Printing
    electrical properties
    Anisotropy
    Moisture
    Electric fields
    Direction compound
    printing
    moisture content
    frequency ranges
    anisotropy

    Cite this

    Simula, S., Varpula, T., Ikäläinen, S., Seppä, H., Paukku, A., & Niskanen, K. (1999). Measurement of the dielectric properties of paper. Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, 43(5), 472-477.
    Simula, S. ; Varpula, Timo ; Ikäläinen, S. ; Seppä, Heikki ; Paukku, Aleksandr ; Niskanen, K. / Measurement of the dielectric properties of paper. In: Journal of Imaging Science and Technology. 1999 ; Vol. 43, No. 5. pp. 472-477.
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    title = "Measurement of the dielectric properties of paper",
    abstract = "Unlike de resistivities of non-impact printing papers that are routinely measured, their dielectric properties are seldom considered. The do resistivity alone does not predict the behavior of paper very well when paper passes through a transfer nip. If the electric field changes with time, all anisotropic frequency-dependent electrical properties of paper should be considered. We present a new method for the measurement of the electrical properties of paper in the principal directions of the sheet. In the frequency range of 20 Hz-1 MHz, the permittivity epsilon' and dielectric loss factor epsilon{"} or electrical conductivity cr can be measured. Measurements on coated and uncoated commercial papers showed some interesting characteristics. In spite of the low moisture content of coated paper, its dielectric constant increased with increasing relative humidity at the same rate as in copy paper. The dielectric constant of copy paper measured in the machine direction (MD) was much higher than what was measured in the thickness direction (ZD). For coated paper the difference between MD and ZD dielectric constants was small. For both types of paper the dielectric loss was much greater in machine direction than in the thickness direction. Dielectric loss increased with increasing relative humidity more in machine direction than in z-direction. Differences in the MD and ZD dielectric constant were attributed to the anisotropy of paper.",
    author = "S. Simula and Timo Varpula and S. Ik{\"a}l{\"a}inen and Heikki Sepp{\"a} and Aleksandr Paukku and K. Niskanen",
    year = "1999",
    language = "English",
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    Simula, S, Varpula, T, Ikäläinen, S, Seppä, H, Paukku, A & Niskanen, K 1999, 'Measurement of the dielectric properties of paper', Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 472-477.

    Measurement of the dielectric properties of paper. / Simula, S.; Varpula, Timo; Ikäläinen, S.; Seppä, Heikki; Paukku, Aleksandr; Niskanen, K.

    In: Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, Vol. 43, No. 5, 1999, p. 472-477.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Measurement of the dielectric properties of paper

    AU - Simula, S.

    AU - Varpula, Timo

    AU - Ikäläinen, S.

    AU - Seppä, Heikki

    AU - Paukku, Aleksandr

    AU - Niskanen, K.

    PY - 1999

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    N2 - Unlike de resistivities of non-impact printing papers that are routinely measured, their dielectric properties are seldom considered. The do resistivity alone does not predict the behavior of paper very well when paper passes through a transfer nip. If the electric field changes with time, all anisotropic frequency-dependent electrical properties of paper should be considered. We present a new method for the measurement of the electrical properties of paper in the principal directions of the sheet. In the frequency range of 20 Hz-1 MHz, the permittivity epsilon' and dielectric loss factor epsilon" or electrical conductivity cr can be measured. Measurements on coated and uncoated commercial papers showed some interesting characteristics. In spite of the low moisture content of coated paper, its dielectric constant increased with increasing relative humidity at the same rate as in copy paper. The dielectric constant of copy paper measured in the machine direction (MD) was much higher than what was measured in the thickness direction (ZD). For coated paper the difference between MD and ZD dielectric constants was small. For both types of paper the dielectric loss was much greater in machine direction than in the thickness direction. Dielectric loss increased with increasing relative humidity more in machine direction than in z-direction. Differences in the MD and ZD dielectric constant were attributed to the anisotropy of paper.

    AB - Unlike de resistivities of non-impact printing papers that are routinely measured, their dielectric properties are seldom considered. The do resistivity alone does not predict the behavior of paper very well when paper passes through a transfer nip. If the electric field changes with time, all anisotropic frequency-dependent electrical properties of paper should be considered. We present a new method for the measurement of the electrical properties of paper in the principal directions of the sheet. In the frequency range of 20 Hz-1 MHz, the permittivity epsilon' and dielectric loss factor epsilon" or electrical conductivity cr can be measured. Measurements on coated and uncoated commercial papers showed some interesting characteristics. In spite of the low moisture content of coated paper, its dielectric constant increased with increasing relative humidity at the same rate as in copy paper. The dielectric constant of copy paper measured in the machine direction (MD) was much higher than what was measured in the thickness direction (ZD). For coated paper the difference between MD and ZD dielectric constants was small. For both types of paper the dielectric loss was much greater in machine direction than in the thickness direction. Dielectric loss increased with increasing relative humidity more in machine direction than in z-direction. Differences in the MD and ZD dielectric constant were attributed to the anisotropy of paper.

    M3 - Article

    VL - 43

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    JO - Journal of Imaging Science and Technology

    JF - Journal of Imaging Science and Technology

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    Simula S, Varpula T, Ikäläinen S, Seppä H, Paukku A, Niskanen K. Measurement of the dielectric properties of paper. Journal of Imaging Science and Technology. 1999;43(5):472-477.