Measurement of the dielectric properties of paper

S. Simula, Timo Varpula, S. Ikäläinen, Heikki Seppä, Aleksandr Paukku, K. Niskanen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Abstract

Unlike de resistivities of non-impact printing papers that are routinely measured, their dielectric properties are seldom considered. The do resistivity alone does not predict the behavior of paper very well when paper passes through a transfer nip. If the electric field changes with time, all anisotropic frequency-dependent electrical properties of paper should be considered. We present a new method for the measurement of the electrical properties of paper in the principal directions of the sheet. In the frequency range of 20 Hz-1 MHz, the permittivity epsilon' and dielectric loss factor epsilon" or electrical conductivity cr can be measured. Measurements on coated and uncoated commercial papers showed some interesting characteristics. In spite of the low moisture content of coated paper, its dielectric constant increased with increasing relative humidity at the same rate as in copy paper. The dielectric constant of copy paper measured in the machine direction (MD) was much higher than what was measured in the thickness direction (ZD). For coated paper the difference between MD and ZD dielectric constants was small. For both types of paper the dielectric loss was much greater in machine direction than in the thickness direction. Dielectric loss increased with increasing relative humidity more in machine direction than in z-direction. Differences in the MD and ZD dielectric constant were attributed to the anisotropy of paper.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)472-477
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Imaging Science and Technology
Volume43
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1999
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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Dielectric properties
dielectric properties
Permittivity
Dielectric losses
permittivity
Atmospheric humidity
dielectric loss
Electric properties
electrical resistivity
humidity
Printing
electrical properties
Anisotropy
Moisture
Electric fields
Direction compound
printing
moisture content
frequency ranges
anisotropy

Cite this

Simula, S., Varpula, T., Ikäläinen, S., Seppä, H., Paukku, A., & Niskanen, K. (1999). Measurement of the dielectric properties of paper. Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, 43(5), 472-477.
Simula, S. ; Varpula, Timo ; Ikäläinen, S. ; Seppä, Heikki ; Paukku, Aleksandr ; Niskanen, K. / Measurement of the dielectric properties of paper. In: Journal of Imaging Science and Technology. 1999 ; Vol. 43, No. 5. pp. 472-477.
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Simula, S, Varpula, T, Ikäläinen, S, Seppä, H, Paukku, A & Niskanen, K 1999, 'Measurement of the dielectric properties of paper', Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 472-477.

Measurement of the dielectric properties of paper. / Simula, S.; Varpula, Timo; Ikäläinen, S.; Seppä, Heikki; Paukku, Aleksandr; Niskanen, K.

In: Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, Vol. 43, No. 5, 1999, p. 472-477.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Measurement of the dielectric properties of paper

AU - Simula, S.

AU - Varpula, Timo

AU - Ikäläinen, S.

AU - Seppä, Heikki

AU - Paukku, Aleksandr

AU - Niskanen, K.

PY - 1999

Y1 - 1999

N2 - Unlike de resistivities of non-impact printing papers that are routinely measured, their dielectric properties are seldom considered. The do resistivity alone does not predict the behavior of paper very well when paper passes through a transfer nip. If the electric field changes with time, all anisotropic frequency-dependent electrical properties of paper should be considered. We present a new method for the measurement of the electrical properties of paper in the principal directions of the sheet. In the frequency range of 20 Hz-1 MHz, the permittivity epsilon' and dielectric loss factor epsilon" or electrical conductivity cr can be measured. Measurements on coated and uncoated commercial papers showed some interesting characteristics. In spite of the low moisture content of coated paper, its dielectric constant increased with increasing relative humidity at the same rate as in copy paper. The dielectric constant of copy paper measured in the machine direction (MD) was much higher than what was measured in the thickness direction (ZD). For coated paper the difference between MD and ZD dielectric constants was small. For both types of paper the dielectric loss was much greater in machine direction than in the thickness direction. Dielectric loss increased with increasing relative humidity more in machine direction than in z-direction. Differences in the MD and ZD dielectric constant were attributed to the anisotropy of paper.

AB - Unlike de resistivities of non-impact printing papers that are routinely measured, their dielectric properties are seldom considered. The do resistivity alone does not predict the behavior of paper very well when paper passes through a transfer nip. If the electric field changes with time, all anisotropic frequency-dependent electrical properties of paper should be considered. We present a new method for the measurement of the electrical properties of paper in the principal directions of the sheet. In the frequency range of 20 Hz-1 MHz, the permittivity epsilon' and dielectric loss factor epsilon" or electrical conductivity cr can be measured. Measurements on coated and uncoated commercial papers showed some interesting characteristics. In spite of the low moisture content of coated paper, its dielectric constant increased with increasing relative humidity at the same rate as in copy paper. The dielectric constant of copy paper measured in the machine direction (MD) was much higher than what was measured in the thickness direction (ZD). For coated paper the difference between MD and ZD dielectric constants was small. For both types of paper the dielectric loss was much greater in machine direction than in the thickness direction. Dielectric loss increased with increasing relative humidity more in machine direction than in z-direction. Differences in the MD and ZD dielectric constant were attributed to the anisotropy of paper.

M3 - Article

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JO - Journal of Imaging Science and Technology

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Simula S, Varpula T, Ikäläinen S, Seppä H, Paukku A, Niskanen K. Measurement of the dielectric properties of paper. Journal of Imaging Science and Technology. 1999;43(5):472-477.