Measuring gene flow in the cultivation of transgenic barley

Anneli Ritala (Corresponding Author), Anna-Maria Nuutila, Reino Aikasalo, Veli Kauppinen, Jussi Tammisola

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

37 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Genetic engineering is becoming a useful tool in the improvement of plants and plant-based raw materials. Varieties with value-added traits are developed for nonfood use in industrial and medical production, and different production lines must be kept separate. For good management practices, knowledge of relevant gene flow parameters is required. In the present study, pollen-mediated dispersal of transgenes via cross-fertilization was examined. A transgenic barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) line carrying a marker gene coding for neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) was used as a pollen donor. For maximum resolution, a cytoplasmically male-sterile barley line was utilized as recipient and the flow of nptII transgene was monitored at distances of 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 25, 50, and 100 m from the donor plots of 225 and 2000 m2. Male-fertile plots at a distance of 1 m were included to measure the transgene flow in normal barley. The number of seeds obtained from male-sterile heads diminished rapidly with distance and only a few seeds were found at distances of 50 and 100 m. Molecular genetic analysis (polymerase chain reaction—PCR) revealed that all seeds obtained from male-sterile heads at a distance of 1 m were transgenic, as anticipated. However, only 3% of the distant seeds (50 m) actually carried the transgene, whereas most of them resulted from fertilization with nontransgenic background pollen. This background pollen was mainly due to pollen leakage in some male-sterile heads. In normal male-fertile barley, the cross-fertilization frequency with transgenic pollen varied from 0 to 7% at a distance of 1 m, depending on weather conditions on the heading day. We conclude that, because of competing self-produced and nontransgenic background pollen, the possibility of cross-pollination is very low between a transgenic barley field and an adjacent field cultivated with normal barley. However, adequate isolation distances and best management practices are needed for cultivation of transgenic barley.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)278-285
JournalCrop Science
Volume42
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2002
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

gene flow
barley
genetically modified organisms
pollen
transgenes
fertilization (reproduction)
kanamycin kinase
seeds
best management practices
cross pollination
value added
heading
genetic engineering
molecular genetics
Hordeum vulgare
genetic techniques and protocols
raw materials
weather
genetic markers

Keywords

  • nptII
  • gene coding for neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII)
  • GM, genetically modified

Cite this

Ritala, Anneli ; Nuutila, Anna-Maria ; Aikasalo, Reino ; Kauppinen, Veli ; Tammisola, Jussi. / Measuring gene flow in the cultivation of transgenic barley. In: Crop Science. 2002 ; Vol. 42, No. 1. pp. 278-285.
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Measuring gene flow in the cultivation of transgenic barley. / Ritala, Anneli (Corresponding Author); Nuutila, Anna-Maria; Aikasalo, Reino; Kauppinen, Veli; Tammisola, Jussi.

In: Crop Science, Vol. 42, No. 1, 2002, p. 278-285.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Measuring gene flow in the cultivation of transgenic barley

AU - Ritala, Anneli

AU - Nuutila, Anna-Maria

AU - Aikasalo, Reino

AU - Kauppinen, Veli

AU - Tammisola, Jussi

PY - 2002

Y1 - 2002

N2 - Genetic engineering is becoming a useful tool in the improvement of plants and plant-based raw materials. Varieties with value-added traits are developed for nonfood use in industrial and medical production, and different production lines must be kept separate. For good management practices, knowledge of relevant gene flow parameters is required. In the present study, pollen-mediated dispersal of transgenes via cross-fertilization was examined. A transgenic barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) line carrying a marker gene coding for neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) was used as a pollen donor. For maximum resolution, a cytoplasmically male-sterile barley line was utilized as recipient and the flow of nptII transgene was monitored at distances of 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 25, 50, and 100 m from the donor plots of 225 and 2000 m2. Male-fertile plots at a distance of 1 m were included to measure the transgene flow in normal barley. The number of seeds obtained from male-sterile heads diminished rapidly with distance and only a few seeds were found at distances of 50 and 100 m. Molecular genetic analysis (polymerase chain reaction—PCR) revealed that all seeds obtained from male-sterile heads at a distance of 1 m were transgenic, as anticipated. However, only 3% of the distant seeds (50 m) actually carried the transgene, whereas most of them resulted from fertilization with nontransgenic background pollen. This background pollen was mainly due to pollen leakage in some male-sterile heads. In normal male-fertile barley, the cross-fertilization frequency with transgenic pollen varied from 0 to 7% at a distance of 1 m, depending on weather conditions on the heading day. We conclude that, because of competing self-produced and nontransgenic background pollen, the possibility of cross-pollination is very low between a transgenic barley field and an adjacent field cultivated with normal barley. However, adequate isolation distances and best management practices are needed for cultivation of transgenic barley.

AB - Genetic engineering is becoming a useful tool in the improvement of plants and plant-based raw materials. Varieties with value-added traits are developed for nonfood use in industrial and medical production, and different production lines must be kept separate. For good management practices, knowledge of relevant gene flow parameters is required. In the present study, pollen-mediated dispersal of transgenes via cross-fertilization was examined. A transgenic barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) line carrying a marker gene coding for neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) was used as a pollen donor. For maximum resolution, a cytoplasmically male-sterile barley line was utilized as recipient and the flow of nptII transgene was monitored at distances of 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 25, 50, and 100 m from the donor plots of 225 and 2000 m2. Male-fertile plots at a distance of 1 m were included to measure the transgene flow in normal barley. The number of seeds obtained from male-sterile heads diminished rapidly with distance and only a few seeds were found at distances of 50 and 100 m. Molecular genetic analysis (polymerase chain reaction—PCR) revealed that all seeds obtained from male-sterile heads at a distance of 1 m were transgenic, as anticipated. However, only 3% of the distant seeds (50 m) actually carried the transgene, whereas most of them resulted from fertilization with nontransgenic background pollen. This background pollen was mainly due to pollen leakage in some male-sterile heads. In normal male-fertile barley, the cross-fertilization frequency with transgenic pollen varied from 0 to 7% at a distance of 1 m, depending on weather conditions on the heading day. We conclude that, because of competing self-produced and nontransgenic background pollen, the possibility of cross-pollination is very low between a transgenic barley field and an adjacent field cultivated with normal barley. However, adequate isolation distances and best management practices are needed for cultivation of transgenic barley.

KW - nptII

KW - gene coding for neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII)

KW - GM, genetically modified

U2 - 10.2135/cropsci2002.2780

DO - 10.2135/cropsci2002.2780

M3 - Article

VL - 42

SP - 278

EP - 285

JO - Crop Science

JF - Crop Science

SN - 0011-183X

IS - 1

ER -