Mechanical and microstructural characterization of through-silicon via fabricated with constant current pulse-reverse modulation

Nay Lin, Jianmin Miao (Corresponding Author), Pradeep Dixit

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Through-silicon via (TSV) copper interconnection technology is currently being developed for the next generation of electronic and microelectromechanical systems components and systems. In the present study, TSVs with different diameters from 60 to 150μm were fabricated with constant current pulse-reverse current modulation to investigate their microstructural and mechanical properties. The mechanical characterization of these electroplated copper pillars was carried out by the nanoindentation test, which shows that the hardness of the copper deposits at the bottom is only 10% higher than at the top. The hardness of copper ranged from 1.45 to 1.8 GPa with a smaller TSV having a higher hardness. Similarly, the dependence of Young’s modulus on the diameter of the copper pillar was observed. The Young’s modulus of smaller diameter pillars was higher than that of pillars having a larger diameter. The residual stress in silicon adjacent to the dielectric layer was measured by micro-Raman spectroscopy and was about 200 MPa. The focused ion beam was used to characterize the microstructure of the electroplated copper. A significant difference in the grain size of copper along the length of TSV (∼1 to 2μm at the bottom and ∼2 to 4μm at the top) was revealed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)D323-D327
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of the Electrochemical Society
Volume157
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2010
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Silicon
Copper
Modulation
Hardness
Elastic moduli
Copper deposits
Focused ion beams
Nanoindentation
MEMS
Raman spectroscopy
Residual stresses
Mechanical properties
Microstructure

Keywords

  • copper
  • electroplated coatings
  • focused ion beam technology
  • grain size
  • hardness
  • integrated circuit interconnections
  • micromechanical devices
  • Young's modulas

Cite this

@article{db52265a517d4ec780e12fb59a732368,
title = "Mechanical and microstructural characterization of through-silicon via fabricated with constant current pulse-reverse modulation",
abstract = "Through-silicon via (TSV) copper interconnection technology is currently being developed for the next generation of electronic and microelectromechanical systems components and systems. In the present study, TSVs with different diameters from 60 to 150μm were fabricated with constant current pulse-reverse current modulation to investigate their microstructural and mechanical properties. The mechanical characterization of these electroplated copper pillars was carried out by the nanoindentation test, which shows that the hardness of the copper deposits at the bottom is only 10{\%} higher than at the top. The hardness of copper ranged from 1.45 to 1.8 GPa with a smaller TSV having a higher hardness. Similarly, the dependence of Young’s modulus on the diameter of the copper pillar was observed. The Young’s modulus of smaller diameter pillars was higher than that of pillars having a larger diameter. The residual stress in silicon adjacent to the dielectric layer was measured by micro-Raman spectroscopy and was about 200 MPa. The focused ion beam was used to characterize the microstructure of the electroplated copper. A significant difference in the grain size of copper along the length of TSV (∼1 to 2μm at the bottom and ∼2 to 4μm at the top) was revealed.",
keywords = "copper, electroplated coatings, focused ion beam technology, grain size, hardness, integrated circuit interconnections, micromechanical devices, Young's modulas",
author = "Nay Lin and Jianmin Miao and Pradeep Dixit",
year = "2010",
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Mechanical and microstructural characterization of through-silicon via fabricated with constant current pulse-reverse modulation. / Lin, Nay; Miao, Jianmin (Corresponding Author); Dixit, Pradeep.

In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, Vol. 157, No. 6, 2010, p. D323-D327.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Mechanical and microstructural characterization of through-silicon via fabricated with constant current pulse-reverse modulation

AU - Lin, Nay

AU - Miao, Jianmin

AU - Dixit, Pradeep

PY - 2010

Y1 - 2010

N2 - Through-silicon via (TSV) copper interconnection technology is currently being developed for the next generation of electronic and microelectromechanical systems components and systems. In the present study, TSVs with different diameters from 60 to 150μm were fabricated with constant current pulse-reverse current modulation to investigate their microstructural and mechanical properties. The mechanical characterization of these electroplated copper pillars was carried out by the nanoindentation test, which shows that the hardness of the copper deposits at the bottom is only 10% higher than at the top. The hardness of copper ranged from 1.45 to 1.8 GPa with a smaller TSV having a higher hardness. Similarly, the dependence of Young’s modulus on the diameter of the copper pillar was observed. The Young’s modulus of smaller diameter pillars was higher than that of pillars having a larger diameter. The residual stress in silicon adjacent to the dielectric layer was measured by micro-Raman spectroscopy and was about 200 MPa. The focused ion beam was used to characterize the microstructure of the electroplated copper. A significant difference in the grain size of copper along the length of TSV (∼1 to 2μm at the bottom and ∼2 to 4μm at the top) was revealed.

AB - Through-silicon via (TSV) copper interconnection technology is currently being developed for the next generation of electronic and microelectromechanical systems components and systems. In the present study, TSVs with different diameters from 60 to 150μm were fabricated with constant current pulse-reverse current modulation to investigate their microstructural and mechanical properties. The mechanical characterization of these electroplated copper pillars was carried out by the nanoindentation test, which shows that the hardness of the copper deposits at the bottom is only 10% higher than at the top. The hardness of copper ranged from 1.45 to 1.8 GPa with a smaller TSV having a higher hardness. Similarly, the dependence of Young’s modulus on the diameter of the copper pillar was observed. The Young’s modulus of smaller diameter pillars was higher than that of pillars having a larger diameter. The residual stress in silicon adjacent to the dielectric layer was measured by micro-Raman spectroscopy and was about 200 MPa. The focused ion beam was used to characterize the microstructure of the electroplated copper. A significant difference in the grain size of copper along the length of TSV (∼1 to 2μm at the bottom and ∼2 to 4μm at the top) was revealed.

KW - copper

KW - electroplated coatings

KW - focused ion beam technology

KW - grain size

KW - hardness

KW - integrated circuit interconnections

KW - micromechanical devices

KW - Young's modulas

U2 - 10.1149/1.3368707

DO - 10.1149/1.3368707

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