The single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were synthesized by the carbon monoxide disproportionation reaction on Fe catalyst particles formed by ferrocene vapor decomposition in a laminar flow aerosol (floating catalyst) reactor. On the basis of in situ sampling of the product collected at different locations in the reactor, kinetics of the SWCNT growth and catalyst particle crystallinity were studied. Catalyst particles captured before SWCNT nucleation as well as inactive particles were determined to have cementite (Fe3C) phase, while particles with γ- and α-Fe phases were found to be embedded in the SCWNTs. The growth rate in the temperature range from 804 to 915 °C was respectively varied from 0.67 to 2.7 μm/s. The growth rate constant can be described by an Arrhenius dependence with an activation energy of Ea = 1.39 eV, which was attributed to the carbon diffusion in solid iron particles. CNT growth termination was explained by solid–liquid phase transition in the catalyst particles. A high temperature gradient in the reactor was found to not have any effect on the diameter during the SWCNT growth and as a result on the chirality of the growing SWCNTs.