This study focused on elucidating metabolism of xylose in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain that overexpresses xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase from Pichia stipitis, as well as the endogenous xylulokinase. The influence of xylose on overall metabolism was examined supplemented with low glucose levels with emphasis on two potential bottlenecks; cofactor requirements and xylose uptake. Results of metabolic flux analysis in continuous cultivations show changes in central metabolism due to the cofactor imbalance imposed by the two-step oxidoreductase reaction of xylose to xylulose. A comparison between cultivations on 27:3 g/L xylose-glucose mixture and 10 g/L glucose revealed that the NADPH-generating flux from glucose-6-phosphate to ribulose-5-phosphate was almost tenfold higher on xylose-glucose mixture and due to the loss of carbon in that pathway the total flux to pyruvate was only around 60% of that on glucose. As a consequence also the fluxes in the citric acid cycle were reduced to around 60%. As the glucose level was decreased to 0.1 g/L the fluxes to pyruvate and in the citric acid cycle were further reduced to 30% and 20%, respectively. The results from in vitro and in vivo xylose uptake measurements showed that the specific xylose uptake rate was highest at the lowest glucose level, 0.1 g/L.
- Metabolic flux analysis
- Saccharomyces cerevisiae