Metagenomics studies of deep terrestrial biosphere of Fennoscandian Shield

Merja Itävaara (Corresponding author), Kaisa Marjamaa, Heikki Salavirta, Antti Nyyssölä, Malin Bomberg, Mari Nyyssönen, Lotta Purkamo, Hanna Miettinen, Elina Sohlberg, Minna Vikman, Lasse Ahonen, Riikka Kietäväinen, Ilmo Kukkonen

Research output: Contribution to conferenceConference AbstractScientific

Abstract

Molecular microbial studies of several deep boreholes ranging from 300 to 2500 m reveal considerable diversity of bacteria, archaea, fungi and viruses in the Fennoscandian Shield. The cell counts decrease with depth even if the temperatures at 2.5 km are only around 40 oC. The major probable selective as-pects are salinity, increasing pressure and oligotrophic mineralogical conditions. The major carbon source is methane evolving from the fractures in the bedrock, and also small quantities of carbon dioxide and hydrogen are present. Whole metagenome sequencing by Illumina HiSeq and Roche 454 was done in order to gain deeper insight into the metabolism of the deep earth crust microbiomes in the Outokumpu deep borehole (2.5km). Assemply of the reads resulted in 2.5 million contigs from which ca. 5 million proteins were predicted. Significant sequence homology was inferred for 2.2 million proteins, which were classified on the basis of KEGG orthology. The study and modelling of the pathways of these proteins is ongoing. In addition, the deep microbiome proteins are studied in vitro by using heterologous expression of metagenome derived enzyme genes.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages1
Publication statusPublished - 2014
Event10th International Congress of Extremophiles - Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation
Duration: 7 Sep 201411 Sep 2014

Conference

Conference10th International Congress of Extremophiles
CountryRussian Federation
CitySaint Petersburg
Period7/09/1411/09/14

Fingerprint

biosphere
shield
protein
borehole
homology
bedrock
virus
carbon dioxide
metabolism
methane
fungus
hydrogen
enzyme
salinity
bacterium
gene
carbon
modeling
temperature

Keywords

  • deep biosphere
  • metagenomics
  • Fennoscandian Shield

Cite this

Itävaara, M., Marjamaa, K., Salavirta, H., Nyyssölä, A., Bomberg, M., Nyyssönen, M., ... Kukkonen, I. (2014). Metagenomics studies of deep terrestrial biosphere of Fennoscandian Shield. Abstract from 10th International Congress of Extremophiles, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation.
Itävaara, Merja ; Marjamaa, Kaisa ; Salavirta, Heikki ; Nyyssölä, Antti ; Bomberg, Malin ; Nyyssönen, Mari ; Purkamo, Lotta ; Miettinen, Hanna ; Sohlberg, Elina ; Vikman, Minna ; Ahonen, Lasse ; Kietäväinen, Riikka ; Kukkonen, Ilmo. / Metagenomics studies of deep terrestrial biosphere of Fennoscandian Shield. Abstract from 10th International Congress of Extremophiles, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation.1 p.
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title = "Metagenomics studies of deep terrestrial biosphere of Fennoscandian Shield",
abstract = "Molecular microbial studies of several deep boreholes ranging from 300 to 2500 m reveal considerable diversity of bacteria, archaea, fungi and viruses in the Fennoscandian Shield. The cell counts decrease with depth even if the temperatures at 2.5 km are only around 40 oC. The major probable selective as-pects are salinity, increasing pressure and oligotrophic mineralogical conditions. The major carbon source is methane evolving from the fractures in the bedrock, and also small quantities of carbon dioxide and hydrogen are present. Whole metagenome sequencing by Illumina HiSeq and Roche 454 was done in order to gain deeper insight into the metabolism of the deep earth crust microbiomes in the Outokumpu deep borehole (2.5km). Assemply of the reads resulted in 2.5 million contigs from which ca. 5 million proteins were predicted. Significant sequence homology was inferred for 2.2 million proteins, which were classified on the basis of KEGG orthology. The study and modelling of the pathways of these proteins is ongoing. In addition, the deep microbiome proteins are studied in vitro by using heterologous expression of metagenome derived enzyme genes.",
keywords = "deep biosphere, metagenomics, Fennoscandian Shield",
author = "Merja It{\"a}vaara and Kaisa Marjamaa and Heikki Salavirta and Antti Nyyss{\"o}l{\"a} and Malin Bomberg and Mari Nyyss{\"o}nen and Lotta Purkamo and Hanna Miettinen and Elina Sohlberg and Minna Vikman and Lasse Ahonen and Riikka Kiet{\"a}v{\"a}inen and Ilmo Kukkonen",
note = "LIS: abstract CA2: BA3116 CA2: BA3135 CA2: BA3112 CA2: BA313 CA2: BA3141; 10th International Congress of Extremophiles ; Conference date: 07-09-2014 Through 11-09-2014",
year = "2014",
language = "English",

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Itävaara, M, Marjamaa, K, Salavirta, H, Nyyssölä, A, Bomberg, M, Nyyssönen, M, Purkamo, L, Miettinen, H, Sohlberg, E, Vikman, M, Ahonen, L, Kietäväinen, R & Kukkonen, I 2014, 'Metagenomics studies of deep terrestrial biosphere of Fennoscandian Shield' 10th International Congress of Extremophiles, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation, 7/09/14 - 11/09/14, .

Metagenomics studies of deep terrestrial biosphere of Fennoscandian Shield. / Itävaara, Merja (Corresponding author); Marjamaa, Kaisa; Salavirta, Heikki; Nyyssölä, Antti; Bomberg, Malin; Nyyssönen, Mari; Purkamo, Lotta; Miettinen, Hanna; Sohlberg, Elina; Vikman, Minna; Ahonen, Lasse; Kietäväinen, Riikka; Kukkonen, Ilmo.

2014. Abstract from 10th International Congress of Extremophiles, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation.

Research output: Contribution to conferenceConference AbstractScientific

TY - CONF

T1 - Metagenomics studies of deep terrestrial biosphere of Fennoscandian Shield

AU - Itävaara, Merja

AU - Marjamaa, Kaisa

AU - Salavirta, Heikki

AU - Nyyssölä, Antti

AU - Bomberg, Malin

AU - Nyyssönen, Mari

AU - Purkamo, Lotta

AU - Miettinen, Hanna

AU - Sohlberg, Elina

AU - Vikman, Minna

AU - Ahonen, Lasse

AU - Kietäväinen, Riikka

AU - Kukkonen, Ilmo

N1 - LIS: abstract CA2: BA3116 CA2: BA3135 CA2: BA3112 CA2: BA313 CA2: BA3141

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - Molecular microbial studies of several deep boreholes ranging from 300 to 2500 m reveal considerable diversity of bacteria, archaea, fungi and viruses in the Fennoscandian Shield. The cell counts decrease with depth even if the temperatures at 2.5 km are only around 40 oC. The major probable selective as-pects are salinity, increasing pressure and oligotrophic mineralogical conditions. The major carbon source is methane evolving from the fractures in the bedrock, and also small quantities of carbon dioxide and hydrogen are present. Whole metagenome sequencing by Illumina HiSeq and Roche 454 was done in order to gain deeper insight into the metabolism of the deep earth crust microbiomes in the Outokumpu deep borehole (2.5km). Assemply of the reads resulted in 2.5 million contigs from which ca. 5 million proteins were predicted. Significant sequence homology was inferred for 2.2 million proteins, which were classified on the basis of KEGG orthology. The study and modelling of the pathways of these proteins is ongoing. In addition, the deep microbiome proteins are studied in vitro by using heterologous expression of metagenome derived enzyme genes.

AB - Molecular microbial studies of several deep boreholes ranging from 300 to 2500 m reveal considerable diversity of bacteria, archaea, fungi and viruses in the Fennoscandian Shield. The cell counts decrease with depth even if the temperatures at 2.5 km are only around 40 oC. The major probable selective as-pects are salinity, increasing pressure and oligotrophic mineralogical conditions. The major carbon source is methane evolving from the fractures in the bedrock, and also small quantities of carbon dioxide and hydrogen are present. Whole metagenome sequencing by Illumina HiSeq and Roche 454 was done in order to gain deeper insight into the metabolism of the deep earth crust microbiomes in the Outokumpu deep borehole (2.5km). Assemply of the reads resulted in 2.5 million contigs from which ca. 5 million proteins were predicted. Significant sequence homology was inferred for 2.2 million proteins, which were classified on the basis of KEGG orthology. The study and modelling of the pathways of these proteins is ongoing. In addition, the deep microbiome proteins are studied in vitro by using heterologous expression of metagenome derived enzyme genes.

KW - deep biosphere

KW - metagenomics

KW - Fennoscandian Shield

M3 - Conference Abstract

ER -

Itävaara M, Marjamaa K, Salavirta H, Nyyssölä A, Bomberg M, Nyyssönen M et al. Metagenomics studies of deep terrestrial biosphere of Fennoscandian Shield. 2014. Abstract from 10th International Congress of Extremophiles, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation.