Method for measuring chromium evaporation from SOFC balance-of-plant components

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Chromium poisoning is a well-identified performance degradation process in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). While stainless steel interconnects have been identified to be a significant source of chromium, the contribution of the chromium from balance-of-plant (BoP) components located upstream of the cathode still needs to be ascertained. The aim of this work was to develop and validate a method to quantify the amount of chromium evaporating from hot BoP components. An austenitic stainless steel (253MA) pipe was exposed to humidified air at high temperatures. The volatile chromium species were then collected by sampling through a quartz tube coated with sodium carbonate. The chromium evaporation rate was reduced by a factor of 4 when a varying temperature history between 650 and 750oC was followed by 100 h operation at 800oC. Scanning electron microscopy was performed on pipe cross sections to show the relationship between the microstructure of the oxide layer and chromium evaporation. The method developed can be used to measure chromium concentration levels at different locations in a complete SOFC system.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2609-2616
Number of pages8
JournalECS Transactions
Volume35
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2011
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC)
Chromium
Evaporation
Steel pipe
Austenitic stainless steel
Quartz
Carbonates
Cathodes
Stainless steel
Pipe
Sodium
Sampling
Degradation
Temperature
Microstructure
Scanning electron microscopy
Oxides
Air

Cite this

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title = "Method for measuring chromium evaporation from SOFC balance-of-plant components",
abstract = "Chromium poisoning is a well-identified performance degradation process in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). While stainless steel interconnects have been identified to be a significant source of chromium, the contribution of the chromium from balance-of-plant (BoP) components located upstream of the cathode still needs to be ascertained. The aim of this work was to develop and validate a method to quantify the amount of chromium evaporating from hot BoP components. An austenitic stainless steel (253MA) pipe was exposed to humidified air at high temperatures. The volatile chromium species were then collected by sampling through a quartz tube coated with sodium carbonate. The chromium evaporation rate was reduced by a factor of 4 when a varying temperature history between 650 and 750oC was followed by 100 h operation at 800oC. Scanning electron microscopy was performed on pipe cross sections to show the relationship between the microstructure of the oxide layer and chromium evaporation. The method developed can be used to measure chromium concentration levels at different locations in a complete SOFC system.",
author = "Olivier Thomann and Mikko Pihlatie and Schuler, {J. Andreas} and Olli Himanen and Jari Kiviaho",
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Method for measuring chromium evaporation from SOFC balance-of-plant components. / Thomann, Olivier; Pihlatie, Mikko; Schuler, J. Andreas; Himanen, Olli; Kiviaho, Jari.

In: ECS Transactions, Vol. 35, No. 1, 2011, p. 2609-2616.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Method for measuring chromium evaporation from SOFC balance-of-plant components

AU - Thomann, Olivier

AU - Pihlatie, Mikko

AU - Schuler, J. Andreas

AU - Himanen, Olli

AU - Kiviaho, Jari

PY - 2011

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N2 - Chromium poisoning is a well-identified performance degradation process in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). While stainless steel interconnects have been identified to be a significant source of chromium, the contribution of the chromium from balance-of-plant (BoP) components located upstream of the cathode still needs to be ascertained. The aim of this work was to develop and validate a method to quantify the amount of chromium evaporating from hot BoP components. An austenitic stainless steel (253MA) pipe was exposed to humidified air at high temperatures. The volatile chromium species were then collected by sampling through a quartz tube coated with sodium carbonate. The chromium evaporation rate was reduced by a factor of 4 when a varying temperature history between 650 and 750oC was followed by 100 h operation at 800oC. Scanning electron microscopy was performed on pipe cross sections to show the relationship between the microstructure of the oxide layer and chromium evaporation. The method developed can be used to measure chromium concentration levels at different locations in a complete SOFC system.

AB - Chromium poisoning is a well-identified performance degradation process in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). While stainless steel interconnects have been identified to be a significant source of chromium, the contribution of the chromium from balance-of-plant (BoP) components located upstream of the cathode still needs to be ascertained. The aim of this work was to develop and validate a method to quantify the amount of chromium evaporating from hot BoP components. An austenitic stainless steel (253MA) pipe was exposed to humidified air at high temperatures. The volatile chromium species were then collected by sampling through a quartz tube coated with sodium carbonate. The chromium evaporation rate was reduced by a factor of 4 when a varying temperature history between 650 and 750oC was followed by 100 h operation at 800oC. Scanning electron microscopy was performed on pipe cross sections to show the relationship between the microstructure of the oxide layer and chromium evaporation. The method developed can be used to measure chromium concentration levels at different locations in a complete SOFC system.

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