Method to Measure Area Specific Resistance and Chromium Migration Simultaneously from Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Interconnect Materials

J. Tallgren (Corresponding Author), O. Himanen, M. Bianco, J. Mikkola, O. Thomann, M. Rautanen, J. Kiviaho, J. Van herle

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

Chromium evaporation is identified as a major degradation mechanism in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks. The major chromium source is the commonly used stainless steel interconnects, thus raising a need for protective coatings on the interconnect steel. Ex situ characterization methods of protective coatings involve chromium evaporation measurements, area specific resistance (ASR) measurements and long-term exposure tests. To replicate stack conditions, commonly used ASR measurement setups should be further developed. This work presents an improved characterization method for steels and coatings and aims to be an extension to state-of-the-art characterization methods. The studied steel samples, bare or coated, are placed adjacent to palladium foils with a screen-printed lanthanum-strontium-cobalt (LSC) layer and the resistivity over the pair is measured. The method offers similar contact materials, chromium migration mechanisms, electrical contacts and chemical interactions, as seen in stacks. Further, it enables post-test chromium migration analysis with electron microscopy. Demonstration of the method validated that protective coatings hindered both oxidation and chromium migration from the substrate steels. The presented method could aid in accelerating protective coating development.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)570-577
Number of pages8
JournalFuel Cells
Volume19
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC)
Chromium
Protective coatings
Steel
Evaporation
Lanthanum
Strontium
Metal foil
Palladium
Electron microscopy
Cobalt
Demonstrations
Stainless steel
Degradation
Coatings
Oxidation
Substrates

Keywords

  • Chromium Poisoning
  • Ferritic Stainless Steel
  • Fuel Cells
  • Planar SOFC Stack
  • Protective Coating Development
  • Stack Degradation

Cite this

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title = "Method to Measure Area Specific Resistance and Chromium Migration Simultaneously from Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Interconnect Materials",
abstract = "Chromium evaporation is identified as a major degradation mechanism in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks. The major chromium source is the commonly used stainless steel interconnects, thus raising a need for protective coatings on the interconnect steel. Ex situ characterization methods of protective coatings involve chromium evaporation measurements, area specific resistance (ASR) measurements and long-term exposure tests. To replicate stack conditions, commonly used ASR measurement setups should be further developed. This work presents an improved characterization method for steels and coatings and aims to be an extension to state-of-the-art characterization methods. The studied steel samples, bare or coated, are placed adjacent to palladium foils with a screen-printed lanthanum-strontium-cobalt (LSC) layer and the resistivity over the pair is measured. The method offers similar contact materials, chromium migration mechanisms, electrical contacts and chemical interactions, as seen in stacks. Further, it enables post-test chromium migration analysis with electron microscopy. Demonstration of the method validated that protective coatings hindered both oxidation and chromium migration from the substrate steels. The presented method could aid in accelerating protective coating development.",
keywords = "Chromium Poisoning, Ferritic Stainless Steel, Fuel Cells, Planar SOFC Stack, Protective Coating Development, Stack Degradation",
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T1 - Method to Measure Area Specific Resistance and Chromium Migration Simultaneously from Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Interconnect Materials

AU - Tallgren, J.

AU - Himanen, O.

AU - Bianco, M.

AU - Mikkola, J.

AU - Thomann, O.

AU - Rautanen, M.

AU - Kiviaho, J.

AU - Van herle, J.

N1 - Project 51135

PY - 2019

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N2 - Chromium evaporation is identified as a major degradation mechanism in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks. The major chromium source is the commonly used stainless steel interconnects, thus raising a need for protective coatings on the interconnect steel. Ex situ characterization methods of protective coatings involve chromium evaporation measurements, area specific resistance (ASR) measurements and long-term exposure tests. To replicate stack conditions, commonly used ASR measurement setups should be further developed. This work presents an improved characterization method for steels and coatings and aims to be an extension to state-of-the-art characterization methods. The studied steel samples, bare or coated, are placed adjacent to palladium foils with a screen-printed lanthanum-strontium-cobalt (LSC) layer and the resistivity over the pair is measured. The method offers similar contact materials, chromium migration mechanisms, electrical contacts and chemical interactions, as seen in stacks. Further, it enables post-test chromium migration analysis with electron microscopy. Demonstration of the method validated that protective coatings hindered both oxidation and chromium migration from the substrate steels. The presented method could aid in accelerating protective coating development.

AB - Chromium evaporation is identified as a major degradation mechanism in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks. The major chromium source is the commonly used stainless steel interconnects, thus raising a need for protective coatings on the interconnect steel. Ex situ characterization methods of protective coatings involve chromium evaporation measurements, area specific resistance (ASR) measurements and long-term exposure tests. To replicate stack conditions, commonly used ASR measurement setups should be further developed. This work presents an improved characterization method for steels and coatings and aims to be an extension to state-of-the-art characterization methods. The studied steel samples, bare or coated, are placed adjacent to palladium foils with a screen-printed lanthanum-strontium-cobalt (LSC) layer and the resistivity over the pair is measured. The method offers similar contact materials, chromium migration mechanisms, electrical contacts and chemical interactions, as seen in stacks. Further, it enables post-test chromium migration analysis with electron microscopy. Demonstration of the method validated that protective coatings hindered both oxidation and chromium migration from the substrate steels. The presented method could aid in accelerating protective coating development.

KW - Chromium Poisoning

KW - Ferritic Stainless Steel

KW - Fuel Cells

KW - Planar SOFC Stack

KW - Protective Coating Development

KW - Stack Degradation

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