Methodologies to determine operating reserves due to increased wind power

Hannele Holttinen, M. Milligan, E. Ela, N. Menemenlis, Dobschinski, B. Rawn, R.J. Bessa, D. Flynn, E. Gomez Lazaro, N. Detlefsen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

233 Citations (Scopus)


Power systems with high wind penetration experience increased variability and uncertainty, such that determination of the required additional operating reserve is attracting a significant amount of attention and research. This paper presents methods used in recent wind integration analyses and operating practice, with key results that compare different methods or data. Wind integration analysis over the past several years has shown that wind variability need not be seen as a contingency event. The impact of wind will be seen in the reserves for nonevent operation (normal operation dealing with deviations from schedules). Wind power will also result in some events of larger variability and large forecast errors that could be categorized as slow events. The level of operating reserve that is induced by wind is not constant during all hours of the year, so that dynamic allocation of reserves will reduce the amount of reserves needed in the system for most hours. The paper concludes with recent emerging trends.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)713-723
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2012
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


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