Microbial methods for assessment of cleaning and disinfection of food-processing surfaces cleaned in a low-pressure system

Sylvia Bredholt, Johanna Maukonen, Kirsi Kujanpää, Timo Alanko, Ulla Olofson, U. Hurmark, Anna-Maija Sjöberg, Gun Wirtanen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

An assessment system using various microbial methods was developed for the detection of residual, surface-attached microbes and soil on surfaces after sanitation. The microbial methods tested were: conventional cultivation, microscopy using image analysis after staining with acridine orange (AO), 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride/4′, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (CTC-DAPI) and LIVE/DEAD stains, impedance measurements, viable counts with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) agar and ATP measurements. A test rig was used for the trials with four different low-pressure cleaning procedures (pressure <20 bar flow rate 27 l min–1). A strong alkaline foam cleaner, Trippel, and a mild alkaline foam cleaner, Topax 12, in combination with two disinfectants, respectively, were used. The disinfectants were peroxide-peracetic-acid-based Oxonia Aktiv and potassium-persulphate-based Virkon. Conventional cultivation combined with impedance measurements and image analysis of surfaces stained with AO, as well as CTC-DAPI, gave results that were comparable and complementary. The combination of these methods enabled a total evaluation of both the removal of biofilm and the killing of bacterial cells. The low-pressure cleaning system did not remove all of the bacterial cells from the surfaces and did not kill the bacteria even after use of the strong alkaline foam cleaner. The above-mentioned protocol carried out on the test rig can also be used to evaluate the sensitivity of microbial methods for use in certain industrial premises.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)145-152
Number of pages8
JournalEuropean Food Research and Technology
Volume209
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1999
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

food contact surfaces
Food processing
Food Handling
Disinfection
disinfection
cleaning
cleaners
Cleaning
foams
test rigs
Foams
Disinfectants
Pressure
acridine orange
Acridine Orange
tetrazolium
disinfectants
impedance
Image analysis
chlorides

Cite this

Bredholt, Sylvia ; Maukonen, Johanna ; Kujanpää, Kirsi ; Alanko, Timo ; Olofson, Ulla ; Hurmark, U. ; Sjöberg, Anna-Maija ; Wirtanen, Gun. / Microbial methods for assessment of cleaning and disinfection of food-processing surfaces cleaned in a low-pressure system. In: European Food Research and Technology. 1999 ; Vol. 209, No. 2. pp. 145-152.
@article{04964244cec346f7a30d77ec918342a0,
title = "Microbial methods for assessment of cleaning and disinfection of food-processing surfaces cleaned in a low-pressure system",
abstract = "An assessment system using various microbial methods was developed for the detection of residual, surface-attached microbes and soil on surfaces after sanitation. The microbial methods tested were: conventional cultivation, microscopy using image analysis after staining with acridine orange (AO), 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride/4′, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (CTC-DAPI) and LIVE/DEAD stains, impedance measurements, viable counts with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) agar and ATP measurements. A test rig was used for the trials with four different low-pressure cleaning procedures (pressure <20 bar flow rate 27 l min–1). A strong alkaline foam cleaner, Trippel, and a mild alkaline foam cleaner, Topax 12, in combination with two disinfectants, respectively, were used. The disinfectants were peroxide-peracetic-acid-based Oxonia Aktiv and potassium-persulphate-based Virkon. Conventional cultivation combined with impedance measurements and image analysis of surfaces stained with AO, as well as CTC-DAPI, gave results that were comparable and complementary. The combination of these methods enabled a total evaluation of both the removal of biofilm and the killing of bacterial cells. The low-pressure cleaning system did not remove all of the bacterial cells from the surfaces and did not kill the bacteria even after use of the strong alkaline foam cleaner. The above-mentioned protocol carried out on the test rig can also be used to evaluate the sensitivity of microbial methods for use in certain industrial premises.",
author = "Sylvia Bredholt and Johanna Maukonen and Kirsi Kujanp{\"a}{\"a} and Timo Alanko and Ulla Olofson and U. Hurmark and Anna-Maija Sj{\"o}berg and Gun Wirtanen",
year = "1999",
doi = "10.1007/s002170050474",
language = "English",
volume = "209",
pages = "145--152",
journal = "European Food Research and Technology",
issn = "1438-2377",
publisher = "Springer",
number = "2",

}

Bredholt, S, Maukonen, J, Kujanpää, K, Alanko, T, Olofson, U, Hurmark, U, Sjöberg, A-M & Wirtanen, G 1999, 'Microbial methods for assessment of cleaning and disinfection of food-processing surfaces cleaned in a low-pressure system', European Food Research and Technology, vol. 209, no. 2, pp. 145-152. https://doi.org/10.1007/s002170050474

Microbial methods for assessment of cleaning and disinfection of food-processing surfaces cleaned in a low-pressure system. / Bredholt, Sylvia; Maukonen, Johanna; Kujanpää, Kirsi; Alanko, Timo; Olofson, Ulla; Hurmark, U.; Sjöberg, Anna-Maija; Wirtanen, Gun.

In: European Food Research and Technology, Vol. 209, No. 2, 1999, p. 145-152.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Microbial methods for assessment of cleaning and disinfection of food-processing surfaces cleaned in a low-pressure system

AU - Bredholt, Sylvia

AU - Maukonen, Johanna

AU - Kujanpää, Kirsi

AU - Alanko, Timo

AU - Olofson, Ulla

AU - Hurmark, U.

AU - Sjöberg, Anna-Maija

AU - Wirtanen, Gun

PY - 1999

Y1 - 1999

N2 - An assessment system using various microbial methods was developed for the detection of residual, surface-attached microbes and soil on surfaces after sanitation. The microbial methods tested were: conventional cultivation, microscopy using image analysis after staining with acridine orange (AO), 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride/4′, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (CTC-DAPI) and LIVE/DEAD stains, impedance measurements, viable counts with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) agar and ATP measurements. A test rig was used for the trials with four different low-pressure cleaning procedures (pressure <20 bar flow rate 27 l min–1). A strong alkaline foam cleaner, Trippel, and a mild alkaline foam cleaner, Topax 12, in combination with two disinfectants, respectively, were used. The disinfectants were peroxide-peracetic-acid-based Oxonia Aktiv and potassium-persulphate-based Virkon. Conventional cultivation combined with impedance measurements and image analysis of surfaces stained with AO, as well as CTC-DAPI, gave results that were comparable and complementary. The combination of these methods enabled a total evaluation of both the removal of biofilm and the killing of bacterial cells. The low-pressure cleaning system did not remove all of the bacterial cells from the surfaces and did not kill the bacteria even after use of the strong alkaline foam cleaner. The above-mentioned protocol carried out on the test rig can also be used to evaluate the sensitivity of microbial methods for use in certain industrial premises.

AB - An assessment system using various microbial methods was developed for the detection of residual, surface-attached microbes and soil on surfaces after sanitation. The microbial methods tested were: conventional cultivation, microscopy using image analysis after staining with acridine orange (AO), 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride/4′, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (CTC-DAPI) and LIVE/DEAD stains, impedance measurements, viable counts with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) agar and ATP measurements. A test rig was used for the trials with four different low-pressure cleaning procedures (pressure <20 bar flow rate 27 l min–1). A strong alkaline foam cleaner, Trippel, and a mild alkaline foam cleaner, Topax 12, in combination with two disinfectants, respectively, were used. The disinfectants were peroxide-peracetic-acid-based Oxonia Aktiv and potassium-persulphate-based Virkon. Conventional cultivation combined with impedance measurements and image analysis of surfaces stained with AO, as well as CTC-DAPI, gave results that were comparable and complementary. The combination of these methods enabled a total evaluation of both the removal of biofilm and the killing of bacterial cells. The low-pressure cleaning system did not remove all of the bacterial cells from the surfaces and did not kill the bacteria even after use of the strong alkaline foam cleaner. The above-mentioned protocol carried out on the test rig can also be used to evaluate the sensitivity of microbial methods for use in certain industrial premises.

U2 - 10.1007/s002170050474

DO - 10.1007/s002170050474

M3 - Article

VL - 209

SP - 145

EP - 152

JO - European Food Research and Technology

JF - European Food Research and Technology

SN - 1438-2377

IS - 2

ER -