Cleaning procedures with or without disinfectant treatment for both open and closed systems were used in developing an assessment system based on various microbial methods for detection of residual surface-attached microbes and soil on surfaces after sanitation. The microbial methods tested were cultivation, microscopy using image analysis after staining with acridine orange, viability staining, impedance measurements, viable counts with TTC agar and ATP measurements. Conventional cultivation, combined with impedance measurements and image analysis of surfaces stained with acridine orange gave results that were comparable and complementary. Combination of these methods enabled a total evaluation of both the removal of biofilm and the killing of bacterial cells. Some of the cleaning procedures tested neither removed all of the bacterial cells from the surfaces nor killed the bacteria. The above-mentioned testing protocol can also be used for evaluating the sensitivity of microbial testing methods for use in certain industrial premises.
|Title of host publication||30th R3-Nordic Contamination Control Symposium|
|Place of Publication||Espoo|
|Publisher||VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland|
|Publication status||Published - 1999|
|MoE publication type||A4 Article in a conference publication|
|Event||30th R3-Nordic Contamination Control Symposium|
- Helsinki, Finland
Duration: 30 May 1999 → 2 Jun 1999
|Conference||30th R3-Nordic Contamination Control Symposium|
|Period||30/05/99 → 2/06/99|
Wirtanen, G., Salo, S., & Mattila-Sandholm, T. (1999). Microbial methods in evaluation of cleaning procedures. In 30th R3-Nordic Contamination Control Symposium (pp. 207-218). VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.