Microsystems for Biological Cell Characterization

Dissertation

Anna Rissanen

Research output: ThesisDissertationMonograph

Abstract

This thesis describes three techniques for the characterization of living cells using micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based devices. The study of cellular function and structure is essential for bioprocess control, disease diagnosis, patient treatment and drug discovery. Microsystem technology enables characterization of very small samples, minimal use of expensive reagents, testing of multiple samples in parallel, and point-of-care testing, all of which increase throughput and reduce the analysis cost. The three characterization techniques presented in this thesis could be integrated into a microfluidic cellular total analysis system to obtain complementary information of cellular function. The first part of the thesis presents the characterization of bovine adrenal cortex capillary endothelial cells by impedance spectroscopy in a microsystem which was realized using microfabrication techniques. The microsystem consists of a small-volume cell culture area defined on PDMS walls on a glass substrate with gold electrodes coated with a self-assembled monolayer to enable cell attachment. As the main result, it was possible to monitor the capillary formation of BACC endothelial cells in a microsystem using impedance spectroscopy. The second part describes calorimetric characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells using a MEMS-based nanocalorimetric microsensor. The cells are introduced to the sensor membrane in small droplets (~1 µl), and the sensor thermopile voltage output is compared to the output of the reference water droplet to extract the effect of sample evaporation. The third part describes the design, process integration and fabrication of an electrically tunable Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) monolithically integrated on a photodiode for visible spectrum measurements. The options for the process integration of separate FPI optical filters are presented. The application of miniature spectrometers based on MEMS FPI technology in biological cell characterization is discussed.
Original languageEnglish
QualificationDoctor Degree
Awarding Institution
  • Aalto University
Supervisors/Advisors
  • Tittonen, Ilkka, Supervisor, External person
  • Franssila, Sami, Advisor, External person
Award date19 Oct 2012
Place of PublicationEspoo
Publisher
Print ISBNs978-951-38-7475-9
Electronic ISBNs978-951-38-7931-0
Publication statusPublished - 2012
MoE publication typeG4 Doctoral dissertation (monograph)

Fingerprint

Microsystems
Fabry-Perot interferometers
Endothelial cells
Yeast
Cells
Spectroscopy
Patient treatment
Thermopiles
Disease control
Microsensors
Optical filters
Microfabrication
Sensors
Testing
Self assembled monolayers
Photodiodes
Cell culture
Microfluidics
Gold
Spectrometers

Keywords

  • BioMEMS
  • impedance spectroscopy
  • MEMS nanocalorimeter
  • Fabry-Perot interferometer
  • microspectrometers
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae
  • yeast
  • cell measurement

Cite this

Rissanen, A. (2012). Microsystems for Biological Cell Characterization: Dissertation. Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
Rissanen, Anna. / Microsystems for Biological Cell Characterization : Dissertation. Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2012. 136 p.
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title = "Microsystems for Biological Cell Characterization: Dissertation",
abstract = "This thesis describes three techniques for the characterization of living cells using micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based devices. The study of cellular function and structure is essential for bioprocess control, disease diagnosis, patient treatment and drug discovery. Microsystem technology enables characterization of very small samples, minimal use of expensive reagents, testing of multiple samples in parallel, and point-of-care testing, all of which increase throughput and reduce the analysis cost. The three characterization techniques presented in this thesis could be integrated into a microfluidic cellular total analysis system to obtain complementary information of cellular function. The first part of the thesis presents the characterization of bovine adrenal cortex capillary endothelial cells by impedance spectroscopy in a microsystem which was realized using microfabrication techniques. The microsystem consists of a small-volume cell culture area defined on PDMS walls on a glass substrate with gold electrodes coated with a self-assembled monolayer to enable cell attachment. As the main result, it was possible to monitor the capillary formation of BACC endothelial cells in a microsystem using impedance spectroscopy. The second part describes calorimetric characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells using a MEMS-based nanocalorimetric microsensor. The cells are introduced to the sensor membrane in small droplets (~1 µl), and the sensor thermopile voltage output is compared to the output of the reference water droplet to extract the effect of sample evaporation. The third part describes the design, process integration and fabrication of an electrically tunable Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) monolithically integrated on a photodiode for visible spectrum measurements. The options for the process integration of separate FPI optical filters are presented. The application of miniature spectrometers based on MEMS FPI technology in biological cell characterization is discussed.",
keywords = "BioMEMS, impedance spectroscopy, MEMS nanocalorimeter, Fabry-Perot interferometer, microspectrometers, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, yeast, cell measurement",
author = "Anna Rissanen",
note = "Project code: 78365",
year = "2012",
language = "English",
isbn = "978-951-38-7475-9",
series = "VTT Science",
publisher = "VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland",
number = "14",
address = "Finland",
school = "Aalto University",

}

Rissanen, A 2012, 'Microsystems for Biological Cell Characterization: Dissertation', Doctor Degree, Aalto University, Espoo.

Microsystems for Biological Cell Characterization : Dissertation. / Rissanen, Anna.

Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2012. 136 p.

Research output: ThesisDissertationMonograph

TY - THES

T1 - Microsystems for Biological Cell Characterization

T2 - Dissertation

AU - Rissanen, Anna

N1 - Project code: 78365

PY - 2012

Y1 - 2012

N2 - This thesis describes three techniques for the characterization of living cells using micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based devices. The study of cellular function and structure is essential for bioprocess control, disease diagnosis, patient treatment and drug discovery. Microsystem technology enables characterization of very small samples, minimal use of expensive reagents, testing of multiple samples in parallel, and point-of-care testing, all of which increase throughput and reduce the analysis cost. The three characterization techniques presented in this thesis could be integrated into a microfluidic cellular total analysis system to obtain complementary information of cellular function. The first part of the thesis presents the characterization of bovine adrenal cortex capillary endothelial cells by impedance spectroscopy in a microsystem which was realized using microfabrication techniques. The microsystem consists of a small-volume cell culture area defined on PDMS walls on a glass substrate with gold electrodes coated with a self-assembled monolayer to enable cell attachment. As the main result, it was possible to monitor the capillary formation of BACC endothelial cells in a microsystem using impedance spectroscopy. The second part describes calorimetric characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells using a MEMS-based nanocalorimetric microsensor. The cells are introduced to the sensor membrane in small droplets (~1 µl), and the sensor thermopile voltage output is compared to the output of the reference water droplet to extract the effect of sample evaporation. The third part describes the design, process integration and fabrication of an electrically tunable Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) monolithically integrated on a photodiode for visible spectrum measurements. The options for the process integration of separate FPI optical filters are presented. The application of miniature spectrometers based on MEMS FPI technology in biological cell characterization is discussed.

AB - This thesis describes three techniques for the characterization of living cells using micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based devices. The study of cellular function and structure is essential for bioprocess control, disease diagnosis, patient treatment and drug discovery. Microsystem technology enables characterization of very small samples, minimal use of expensive reagents, testing of multiple samples in parallel, and point-of-care testing, all of which increase throughput and reduce the analysis cost. The three characterization techniques presented in this thesis could be integrated into a microfluidic cellular total analysis system to obtain complementary information of cellular function. The first part of the thesis presents the characterization of bovine adrenal cortex capillary endothelial cells by impedance spectroscopy in a microsystem which was realized using microfabrication techniques. The microsystem consists of a small-volume cell culture area defined on PDMS walls on a glass substrate with gold electrodes coated with a self-assembled monolayer to enable cell attachment. As the main result, it was possible to monitor the capillary formation of BACC endothelial cells in a microsystem using impedance spectroscopy. The second part describes calorimetric characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells using a MEMS-based nanocalorimetric microsensor. The cells are introduced to the sensor membrane in small droplets (~1 µl), and the sensor thermopile voltage output is compared to the output of the reference water droplet to extract the effect of sample evaporation. The third part describes the design, process integration and fabrication of an electrically tunable Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) monolithically integrated on a photodiode for visible spectrum measurements. The options for the process integration of separate FPI optical filters are presented. The application of miniature spectrometers based on MEMS FPI technology in biological cell characterization is discussed.

KW - BioMEMS

KW - impedance spectroscopy

KW - MEMS nanocalorimeter

KW - Fabry-Perot interferometer

KW - microspectrometers

KW - Saccharomyces cerevisiae

KW - yeast

KW - cell measurement

M3 - Dissertation

SN - 978-951-38-7475-9

T3 - VTT Science

PB - VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland

CY - Espoo

ER -

Rissanen A. Microsystems for Biological Cell Characterization: Dissertation. Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2012. 136 p.