Microwave detection at 110 GHz by nanowires with broken symmetry

C. Balocco, A.M. Song (Corresponding Author), Markku Åberg, A. Forchel, T. Gonzalez, J. Mateos, I. Maximov, M. Missous, A.A. Rezazadeh, Jan Saijets, L. Samuelson, D. Wallin, K. Williams, L. Worschech, H.Q. Xu

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    94 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    By using arrays of nanowires with intentionally broken symmetry, we were able to detect microwaves up to 110 GHz at room temperature. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the highest speed that has been demonstrated in different types of novel electronic nanostructures to date. Our experiments showed a rather stable detection sensitivity over a broad frequency range from 100 MHz to 110 GHz. The novel working principle enabled the nanowires to detect microwaves efficiently without a dc bias. In principle, the need for only one high-resolution lithography step and the planar architecture allow an arbitrary number of nanowires to be made by folding a linear array as many times as required over a large area, for example, a whole wafer. Our experiment on 18 parallel nanowires showed a sensitivity of approximately 75 mV dc output/mW of nominal input power of the 110 GHz signal, even though only about 0.4% of the rf power was effectively applied to the structure because of an impedance mismatch. Because this array of nanowires operates simultaneously, low detection noise was achieved, allowing us to detect −25 dBm 110 GHz microwaves at zero bias with a standard setup.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1423 - 1427
    Number of pages5
    JournalNano Letters
    Volume5
    Issue number7
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2005
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Fingerprint

    Nanowires
    broken symmetry
    nanowires
    Microwaves
    microwaves
    linear arrays
    folding
    Lithography
    Nanostructures
    lithography
    frequency ranges
    Experiments
    high speed
    wafers
    impedance
    output
    sensitivity
    high resolution
    room temperature
    electronics

    Keywords

    • microwave devices
    • nanowires
    • nanostructures
    • nanodevices

    Cite this

    Balocco, C., Song, A. M., Åberg, M., Forchel, A., Gonzalez, T., Mateos, J., ... Xu, H. Q. (2005). Microwave detection at 110 GHz by nanowires with broken symmetry. Nano Letters, 5(7), 1423 - 1427. https://doi.org/10.1021/nl050779g
    Balocco, C. ; Song, A.M. ; Åberg, Markku ; Forchel, A. ; Gonzalez, T. ; Mateos, J. ; Maximov, I. ; Missous, M. ; Rezazadeh, A.A. ; Saijets, Jan ; Samuelson, L. ; Wallin, D. ; Williams, K. ; Worschech, L. ; Xu, H.Q. / Microwave detection at 110 GHz by nanowires with broken symmetry. In: Nano Letters. 2005 ; Vol. 5, No. 7. pp. 1423 - 1427.
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    title = "Microwave detection at 110 GHz by nanowires with broken symmetry",
    abstract = "By using arrays of nanowires with intentionally broken symmetry, we were able to detect microwaves up to 110 GHz at room temperature. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the highest speed that has been demonstrated in different types of novel electronic nanostructures to date. Our experiments showed a rather stable detection sensitivity over a broad frequency range from 100 MHz to 110 GHz. The novel working principle enabled the nanowires to detect microwaves efficiently without a dc bias. In principle, the need for only one high-resolution lithography step and the planar architecture allow an arbitrary number of nanowires to be made by folding a linear array as many times as required over a large area, for example, a whole wafer. Our experiment on 18 parallel nanowires showed a sensitivity of approximately 75 mV dc output/mW of nominal input power of the 110 GHz signal, even though only about 0.4{\%} of the rf power was effectively applied to the structure because of an impedance mismatch. Because this array of nanowires operates simultaneously, low detection noise was achieved, allowing us to detect −25 dBm 110 GHz microwaves at zero bias with a standard setup.",
    keywords = "microwave devices, nanowires, nanostructures, nanodevices",
    author = "C. Balocco and A.M. Song and Markku {\AA}berg and A. Forchel and T. Gonzalez and J. Mateos and I. Maximov and M. Missous and A.A. Rezazadeh and Jan Saijets and L. Samuelson and D. Wallin and K. Williams and L. Worschech and H.Q. Xu",
    year = "2005",
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    Balocco, C, Song, AM, Åberg, M, Forchel, A, Gonzalez, T, Mateos, J, Maximov, I, Missous, M, Rezazadeh, AA, Saijets, J, Samuelson, L, Wallin, D, Williams, K, Worschech, L & Xu, HQ 2005, 'Microwave detection at 110 GHz by nanowires with broken symmetry', Nano Letters, vol. 5, no. 7, pp. 1423 - 1427. https://doi.org/10.1021/nl050779g

    Microwave detection at 110 GHz by nanowires with broken symmetry. / Balocco, C.; Song, A.M. (Corresponding Author); Åberg, Markku; Forchel, A.; Gonzalez, T.; Mateos, J.; Maximov, I.; Missous, M.; Rezazadeh, A.A.; Saijets, Jan; Samuelson, L.; Wallin, D.; Williams, K.; Worschech, L.; Xu, H.Q.

    In: Nano Letters, Vol. 5, No. 7, 2005, p. 1423 - 1427.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Microwave detection at 110 GHz by nanowires with broken symmetry

    AU - Balocco, C.

    AU - Song, A.M.

    AU - Åberg, Markku

    AU - Forchel, A.

    AU - Gonzalez, T.

    AU - Mateos, J.

    AU - Maximov, I.

    AU - Missous, M.

    AU - Rezazadeh, A.A.

    AU - Saijets, Jan

    AU - Samuelson, L.

    AU - Wallin, D.

    AU - Williams, K.

    AU - Worschech, L.

    AU - Xu, H.Q.

    PY - 2005

    Y1 - 2005

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    AB - By using arrays of nanowires with intentionally broken symmetry, we were able to detect microwaves up to 110 GHz at room temperature. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the highest speed that has been demonstrated in different types of novel electronic nanostructures to date. Our experiments showed a rather stable detection sensitivity over a broad frequency range from 100 MHz to 110 GHz. The novel working principle enabled the nanowires to detect microwaves efficiently without a dc bias. In principle, the need for only one high-resolution lithography step and the planar architecture allow an arbitrary number of nanowires to be made by folding a linear array as many times as required over a large area, for example, a whole wafer. Our experiment on 18 parallel nanowires showed a sensitivity of approximately 75 mV dc output/mW of nominal input power of the 110 GHz signal, even though only about 0.4% of the rf power was effectively applied to the structure because of an impedance mismatch. Because this array of nanowires operates simultaneously, low detection noise was achieved, allowing us to detect −25 dBm 110 GHz microwaves at zero bias with a standard setup.

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    KW - nanowires

    KW - nanostructures

    KW - nanodevices

    U2 - 10.1021/nl050779g

    DO - 10.1021/nl050779g

    M3 - Article

    VL - 5

    SP - 1423

    EP - 1427

    JO - Nano Letters

    JF - Nano Letters

    SN - 1530-6984

    IS - 7

    ER -

    Balocco C, Song AM, Åberg M, Forchel A, Gonzalez T, Mateos J et al. Microwave detection at 110 GHz by nanowires with broken symmetry. Nano Letters. 2005;5(7):1423 - 1427. https://doi.org/10.1021/nl050779g