Mineralogical and elemental composition of fly ash from pilot scale fluidised bed combustion of lignite, bituminous coal, wood chips and their blends

Nikolaos Koukouzas (Corresponding Author), Jouni Hämäläinen, Dimitra Papanikolaou, Antti Tourunen, Timo Jäntti

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89 Citations (Scopus)


The chemical and mineralogical composition of fly ash samples collected from different parts of a laboratory and a pilot scale CFB facility has been investigated. The fabric filter and the second cyclone of the two facilities were chosen as sampling points. The fuels used were Greek lignite (from the Florina basin), Polish coal and wood chips. Characterization of the fly ash samples was conducted by means of X-ray fluorescence (XRF), inductive coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), particle size distribution (PSD) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). According to the chemical analyses the produced fly ashes are rich in CaO. Moreover, SiO2 is the dominant oxide in fly ash with Al2O3 and Fe2O3 found in considerable quantities. Results obtained by XRD showed that the major mineral phase of fly ash is quartz, while other mineral phases that are occurred are maghemite, hematite, periclase, rutile, gehlenite and anhydrite. The ICP-OES analysis showed rather low levels of trace elements, especially for As and Cr, in many of the ashes included in this study compared to coal ash from fluidised bed combustion in general.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2186-2193
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - 2007
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed



  • CFB fly ash
  • Bituminous coal
  • Wood chips
  • Lignite

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