Modeling of optical waveguide biosensor structures

Licentiate thesis

Jyrki Kimmel

Research output: ThesisLicenciateTheses

Abstract

Optical biosensors have become attractive candidates for sensing immunochemical binding reactions, not only in medicine but also in environmental science and process technology monitoring applications. Fluorescence is one of the most prevalent methods to label antibodies or antigens for optical detection. Integrated optical and fiber optic sensors can help miniatyrize a conventional assay based on fluorescence and make it a cheaper and faster probe to be coupled with an economical instrument for doctor's of office, outpatient and critical care monitoring of biochemical parameters. This work presents a study of modeling, fabrication and characterization of integrated optical fluorescence sensors. Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) modeling has been applied to the design of the device. FDTD is a numerical method for solving Maxwell's equations for electromagnetic fields in a discretized space and time grid. Benefits of the method include savings in computer memory storage and execution Limes, and the possibility to take the near field features of the model in account. The fluorescence sensor component was designed so that with correct choice of parameters, both evanescent excitation and side collection of emitted fluorescence could be maximized. The component was fabricated by sputtering quartz on a fused silica substrate in presence of nitrogen gas. The devices were characterized by various methods to get a physical picture of the properties of the sensor. Another FDTD model was subsequently developed to evaluate the performance of the component in fluorescence sensing applications. The result of the work was validation of FDTD as a tool to solve optical problems. In the characterization, a new method was developed for loss measurements of waveguides based on CCD imaging. The results of the study indicate that the fabricated components are well suited for fluorescence sensing applications.
Original languageEnglish
QualificationLicentiate Degree
Awarding Institution
  • Tampere University of Technology (TUT)
Supervisors/Advisors
  • Herron, James, Supervisor, External person
  • Christensen, Douglas, Supervisor, External person
Place of PublicationEspoo
Publisher
Print ISBNs951-38-4230-4
Publication statusPublished - 1992
MoE publication typeG3 Licentiate thesis

Fingerprint

Optical waveguides
Biosensors
Fluorescence
Sensors
Quartz
Monitoring
Fiber optic sensors
Maxwell equations
Fused silica
Charge coupled devices
Electromagnetic fields
Medicine
Sputtering
Labels
Assays
Numerical methods
Waveguides
Nitrogen
Gases
Imaging techniques

Keywords

  • models
  • bioinstrumentation
  • optical instruments
  • waveguide
  • optics
  • detectors
  • fluorescence
  • fiber optics
  • finite difference theory
  • numerical analysis
  • computer programs
  • immunology
  • chemical reactions
  • antibodies
  • antigens
  • electrodynamics
  • Maxwell's equations
  • utilization
  • prototypes
  • fabrication

Cite this

Kimmel, J. (1992). Modeling of optical waveguide biosensor structures: Licentiate thesis. Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
Kimmel, Jyrki. / Modeling of optical waveguide biosensor structures : Licentiate thesis. Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 1992. 111 p.
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title = "Modeling of optical waveguide biosensor structures: Licentiate thesis",
abstract = "Optical biosensors have become attractive candidates for sensing immunochemical binding reactions, not only in medicine but also in environmental science and process technology monitoring applications. Fluorescence is one of the most prevalent methods to label antibodies or antigens for optical detection. Integrated optical and fiber optic sensors can help miniatyrize a conventional assay based on fluorescence and make it a cheaper and faster probe to be coupled with an economical instrument for doctor's of office, outpatient and critical care monitoring of biochemical parameters. This work presents a study of modeling, fabrication and characterization of integrated optical fluorescence sensors. Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) modeling has been applied to the design of the device. FDTD is a numerical method for solving Maxwell's equations for electromagnetic fields in a discretized space and time grid. Benefits of the method include savings in computer memory storage and execution Limes, and the possibility to take the near field features of the model in account. The fluorescence sensor component was designed so that with correct choice of parameters, both evanescent excitation and side collection of emitted fluorescence could be maximized. The component was fabricated by sputtering quartz on a fused silica substrate in presence of nitrogen gas. The devices were characterized by various methods to get a physical picture of the properties of the sensor. Another FDTD model was subsequently developed to evaluate the performance of the component in fluorescence sensing applications. The result of the work was validation of FDTD as a tool to solve optical problems. In the characterization, a new method was developed for loss measurements of waveguides based on CCD imaging. The results of the study indicate that the fabricated components are well suited for fluorescence sensing applications.",
keywords = "models, bioinstrumentation, optical instruments, waveguide, optics, detectors, fluorescence, fiber optics, finite difference theory, numerical analysis, computer programs, immunology, chemical reactions, antibodies, antigens, electrodynamics, Maxwell's equations, utilization, prototypes, fabrication",
author = "Jyrki Kimmel",
note = "Project code: SAIT9411",
year = "1992",
language = "English",
isbn = "951-38-4230-4",
series = "VTT Publications",
publisher = "VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland",
number = "112",
address = "Finland",
school = "Tampere University of Technology (TUT)",

}

Kimmel, J 1992, 'Modeling of optical waveguide biosensor structures: Licentiate thesis', Licentiate Degree, Tampere University of Technology (TUT), Espoo.

Modeling of optical waveguide biosensor structures : Licentiate thesis. / Kimmel, Jyrki.

Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 1992. 111 p.

Research output: ThesisLicenciateTheses

TY - THES

T1 - Modeling of optical waveguide biosensor structures

T2 - Licentiate thesis

AU - Kimmel, Jyrki

N1 - Project code: SAIT9411

PY - 1992

Y1 - 1992

N2 - Optical biosensors have become attractive candidates for sensing immunochemical binding reactions, not only in medicine but also in environmental science and process technology monitoring applications. Fluorescence is one of the most prevalent methods to label antibodies or antigens for optical detection. Integrated optical and fiber optic sensors can help miniatyrize a conventional assay based on fluorescence and make it a cheaper and faster probe to be coupled with an economical instrument for doctor's of office, outpatient and critical care monitoring of biochemical parameters. This work presents a study of modeling, fabrication and characterization of integrated optical fluorescence sensors. Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) modeling has been applied to the design of the device. FDTD is a numerical method for solving Maxwell's equations for electromagnetic fields in a discretized space and time grid. Benefits of the method include savings in computer memory storage and execution Limes, and the possibility to take the near field features of the model in account. The fluorescence sensor component was designed so that with correct choice of parameters, both evanescent excitation and side collection of emitted fluorescence could be maximized. The component was fabricated by sputtering quartz on a fused silica substrate in presence of nitrogen gas. The devices were characterized by various methods to get a physical picture of the properties of the sensor. Another FDTD model was subsequently developed to evaluate the performance of the component in fluorescence sensing applications. The result of the work was validation of FDTD as a tool to solve optical problems. In the characterization, a new method was developed for loss measurements of waveguides based on CCD imaging. The results of the study indicate that the fabricated components are well suited for fluorescence sensing applications.

AB - Optical biosensors have become attractive candidates for sensing immunochemical binding reactions, not only in medicine but also in environmental science and process technology monitoring applications. Fluorescence is one of the most prevalent methods to label antibodies or antigens for optical detection. Integrated optical and fiber optic sensors can help miniatyrize a conventional assay based on fluorescence and make it a cheaper and faster probe to be coupled with an economical instrument for doctor's of office, outpatient and critical care monitoring of biochemical parameters. This work presents a study of modeling, fabrication and characterization of integrated optical fluorescence sensors. Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) modeling has been applied to the design of the device. FDTD is a numerical method for solving Maxwell's equations for electromagnetic fields in a discretized space and time grid. Benefits of the method include savings in computer memory storage and execution Limes, and the possibility to take the near field features of the model in account. The fluorescence sensor component was designed so that with correct choice of parameters, both evanescent excitation and side collection of emitted fluorescence could be maximized. The component was fabricated by sputtering quartz on a fused silica substrate in presence of nitrogen gas. The devices were characterized by various methods to get a physical picture of the properties of the sensor. Another FDTD model was subsequently developed to evaluate the performance of the component in fluorescence sensing applications. The result of the work was validation of FDTD as a tool to solve optical problems. In the characterization, a new method was developed for loss measurements of waveguides based on CCD imaging. The results of the study indicate that the fabricated components are well suited for fluorescence sensing applications.

KW - models

KW - bioinstrumentation

KW - optical instruments

KW - waveguide

KW - optics

KW - detectors

KW - fluorescence

KW - fiber optics

KW - finite difference theory

KW - numerical analysis

KW - computer programs

KW - immunology

KW - chemical reactions

KW - antibodies

KW - antigens

KW - electrodynamics

KW - Maxwell's equations

KW - utilization

KW - prototypes

KW - fabrication

M3 - Licenciate

SN - 951-38-4230-4

T3 - VTT Publications

PB - VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland

CY - Espoo

ER -

Kimmel J. Modeling of optical waveguide biosensor structures: Licentiate thesis. Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 1992. 111 p.