Models for the growth of rime, glaze, icicles and wet snow on structures

Lasse Makkonen

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    325 Citations (Scopus)


    Ice accretion on structures is discussed with an emphasis on estimating structural design iceloads and solving operational icing problems. Basic principles of modelling of icing caused by freezing precipitation, cloud droplets and wet snow, as well as simulation of icicle growth, are presented. Theoretical models of atmospheric ice accretion are critically reviewed, particularly with respect to the simulation of the relevant physical processes. The reasons for the difficulties in simulating some icing phenomena accurately are analysed and proposals for further improvements in the models are made.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)2913 - 2939
    Number of pages27
    JournalPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
    Issue number1776
    Publication statusPublished - 2000
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


    • ice
    • ice accretion
    • structures
    • icing
    • icicles
    • modeling


    Dive into the research topics of 'Models for the growth of rime, glaze, icicles and wet snow on structures'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this