Modular and Scalable Powertrain for Multipurpose Light Electric Vehicles

Mehrnaz Farzam far (Corresponding Author), Damijan Miljavec, Roman Manko, Jenni Pippuri-Mäkeläinen, Mikaela Ranta, Janne Keränen, Jutta Kinder, Mario Vukotić

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
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Light electric vehicles are best suited for city and suburban settings, where top speed and long-distance travel are not the primary concerns. The literature concerning light electric vehicle powertrain design often overlooks the influence of the associated driving missions. Typically, the powertrain is initially parameterized, established, and then evaluated with an ex-post-performance assessment using driving cycles. Nevertheless, to optimize the size and performance of a vehicle according to its intended mission, it is essential to consider the driving cycles right from the outset, in the powertrain design. This paper presents the design of an electric powertrain for multipurpose light electric vehicles, focusing on the motor, battery, and charging requirements. The powertrain design optimization is realized from the first stages by considering the vehicle’s driving missions and operational patterns for multipurpose usage (transporting people or goods) in European urban environments. The proposed powertrain is modular and scalable in terms of the energy capacity of the battery as well as in the electric motor shaft power and torque. Having such a possibility gives one the flexibility to use the powertrain in different combinations for different vehicle categories, from L7 quadricycles to light M1 vehicles.
Original languageEnglish
Article number309
Pages (from-to)309
JournalWorld Electric Vehicle Journal
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2023
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


This work was fully supported by the EU REFLECTIVE project, funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement No. 101006747.


  • charging
  • driving cycles
  • electric powertrain design
  • induction motor
  • light electric vehicle


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