Modular vertically-integrated skin patch for biosignal measurements

Ari Alastalo, Kimmo Keränen, Mika Suhonen, Jyrki Ollila, Arttu Huttunen, Raf Appeltans, Wim Sijbers, Gijs van Gestel, Afshin Hadipour, Stijn Lammar, Aranzazu Aguirre, Rafael Michalczuk, Christof Gapp, Martin Scholz, Markus Peters, Frank Etzel, Gunter Hübner, Martin Krebs, Zoryana Turyk, Nicolas Bucher

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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This paper presents research on a novel and modular vertically-integrated wearable skin patch for biosignal measurements. The flexible patch consists of a disposable skin-contacting electrode layer and a durable electronics part. The durable part is designed to include a printed re-chargeable battery, a solar cell, electronics for the measurement of electrocardiogram (ECG), galvanic skin response, acceleration, temperature and humidity and a covering visually appealing jewellery-like functional crystal layer for decoration and user interaction. The patch can store measurement data and transmit it to a mobile phone via a bluetooth low-energy radio. Integration process is developed for the vertical stacking that limits the skin-patch area to achieve a desirable form factor. The sensing electrodes are printed on stretchable thermoformable polyurethane substrate with vias through the substrate to couple skin-contacting electrodes to the upper functional layers. A removable adhesive layer between the disposable and durable parts is developed to enable separating the two parts after wear and then to couple the durable part with a new disposable part. The patch is tested on body for ECG sensing.

Original languageEnglish
Article number045002
JournalFlexible and Printed Electronics
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2023
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


This work has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under Grant Agreement No. 825172 (BEWELL project).


  • BLE
  • ECG
  • GSR
  • printed batteries
  • skin adhesives
  • smart skin patch
  • wearables


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