Molecular biology of cellulolytic fungi

Helena Nevalainen, Merja Penttilä

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter or book articleProfessional

Abstract

The synthesis, modification and hydrolysis of carbohydrates by glycosidase enzymes are some of the fundamental activities in nature. Enzymes responsible for these processes are produced across different organisms, genera and species including the kingdom fungi. Together with bacteria, fungi are responsible for the recycling of nature’s recalcitrant polymers such as lignocellulose which is mainly stored in the plant cell walls. The three main components of a plant cell wall are cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in a percent ratio of about 40:30:30 (Sjöström 1981). White rot fungi are capable of degrading all three polymeric substances, including the polyphenolic lignin, whereas brown rot and soft rot fungi prefer the carbohydrate polymers of cellulose, formed of 13-1,4-linked D-glucopyranose units with no side branches and hemicellulose, of which the backbone structure consists of ß-1,4-linked D-xylopyranosyl units (xylan) or 13-1,4-linked D-mannose and D-glucose units (mannan) with sugar side chains that may be acetylated and/or methylated (reviewed in Tenkanen 1995). Earlier studies of lignocellulose hydrolysis have mainly concentrated on the biochemistry and molecular biology of cellulose degradation. More recently, the enzymology of lignin degradation (reviewed in Leonowicz et al. 1999) and especially molecular studies on the hydrolysis of hemicellulose have advanced considerably (e.g. de Vries et al. 2002). Xylan degradation has been studied in detail with genes and enzymes from Aspergillus (reviewed in de Vries et al. 2002) and lignin degradation with Phanerochaete chrysosporium (reviewed in Cameron et al. 2000). At present, some 20 enzymes involved in the degradation of lignocellulose have been described. In this chapter, we will concentrate on molecular aspects relating to cellulose hydrolysis.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationThe Mycota
Subtitle of host publicationGenetics and Biotechnology
EditorsUlrich Kück
Pages303-319
VolumeII
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-662-07426-8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1995
MoE publication typeD2 Article in professional manuals or guides or professional information systems or text book material

Fingerprint

molecular biology
lignocellulose
lignin
cellulose
hydrolysis
fungi
hemicellulose
degradation
xylan
enzymes
polymers
soft-rot fungi
cell walls
enzymology
Phanerochaete chrysosporium
carbohydrates
white-rot fungi
glycosidases
mannose
Aspergillus

Cite this

Nevalainen, H., & Penttilä, M. (1995). Molecular biology of cellulolytic fungi. In U. Kück (Ed.), The Mycota: Genetics and Biotechnology (Vol. II, pp. 303-319) https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-07426-8_18
Nevalainen, Helena ; Penttilä, Merja. / Molecular biology of cellulolytic fungi. The Mycota: Genetics and Biotechnology. editor / Ulrich Kück. Vol. II 1995. pp. 303-319
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Nevalainen, H & Penttilä, M 1995, Molecular biology of cellulolytic fungi. in U Kück (ed.), The Mycota: Genetics and Biotechnology. vol. II, pp. 303-319. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-07426-8_18

Molecular biology of cellulolytic fungi. / Nevalainen, Helena; Penttilä, Merja.

The Mycota: Genetics and Biotechnology. ed. / Ulrich Kück. Vol. II 1995. p. 303-319.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter or book articleProfessional

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AB - The synthesis, modification and hydrolysis of carbohydrates by glycosidase enzymes are some of the fundamental activities in nature. Enzymes responsible for these processes are produced across different organisms, genera and species including the kingdom fungi. Together with bacteria, fungi are responsible for the recycling of nature’s recalcitrant polymers such as lignocellulose which is mainly stored in the plant cell walls. The three main components of a plant cell wall are cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in a percent ratio of about 40:30:30 (Sjöström 1981). White rot fungi are capable of degrading all three polymeric substances, including the polyphenolic lignin, whereas brown rot and soft rot fungi prefer the carbohydrate polymers of cellulose, formed of 13-1,4-linked D-glucopyranose units with no side branches and hemicellulose, of which the backbone structure consists of ß-1,4-linked D-xylopyranosyl units (xylan) or 13-1,4-linked D-mannose and D-glucose units (mannan) with sugar side chains that may be acetylated and/or methylated (reviewed in Tenkanen 1995). Earlier studies of lignocellulose hydrolysis have mainly concentrated on the biochemistry and molecular biology of cellulose degradation. More recently, the enzymology of lignin degradation (reviewed in Leonowicz et al. 1999) and especially molecular studies on the hydrolysis of hemicellulose have advanced considerably (e.g. de Vries et al. 2002). Xylan degradation has been studied in detail with genes and enzymes from Aspergillus (reviewed in de Vries et al. 2002) and lignin degradation with Phanerochaete chrysosporium (reviewed in Cameron et al. 2000). At present, some 20 enzymes involved in the degradation of lignocellulose have been described. In this chapter, we will concentrate on molecular aspects relating to cellulose hydrolysis.

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M3 - Chapter or book article

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BT - The Mycota

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ER -

Nevalainen H, Penttilä M. Molecular biology of cellulolytic fungi. In Kück U, editor, The Mycota: Genetics and Biotechnology. Vol. II. 1995. p. 303-319 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-07426-8_18